UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions
UP Board Class 9 History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler InText Questions and Answers
Activity and In-text Questions
Activity (Page No. 61)
Read Sources A and B.
What do they tell you about Hitler’s imperial ambition ?
(1) The presented text proves that Hitler had high imperial ambition.
(2) He wanted to expand the boundaries of his country to infinite limits.
(3) Hitler believed that a vigorous nation will always find ways of adapting its territory to its population size.
(4) Hitler also wished to put Germany as a world power and, therefore, was dissatisfied due to the geographical area of 500 sq. km., as many other countries had areas as big as continents.
What do you think Mahatma Gandhi would have said to Hitler about these ideas ?
Mahatma Gandhi would have advised Hitler to shun violence, as violence begets violence.
Activity (Page No. 63)
What does citizenship mean to you ? Look at chapters 1 and 3 and write 200 words on how the French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship.
Citizenship means the right of a person to live in the desired country or the country of his birth. Both French Revolution and Nazism defined citizenship in different ways having different perspectives. French Revolution considered that all men are born equal and are to remain free with equal rights. The primary rights of a citizen are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. A person is free to express his views and settle wherever he wants. There should be rule of law and no one can stand above it in a democratic and socialist society.
On the other hand, Nazis defined a citizenship exclusively with the perspective of racial discrimination. Therefore, they did not consider Jews and other ‘undesirable’ population as citizens of Germany. Instead, they were given a harsh treatment and were excluded from Germany. Later, they were hunted out of Germany to neighbouring Poland and Eastern Europe.
What did the Nuremberg Laws mean to the ‘undesirables’ in Nazi Government ? What other legal measures were taken against them to make them feel unwanted ?
The Nuremberg Laws meant that the “undesirables” have no right to live among “desirables” as citizens. The Nuremberg laws of citizenship (1935) are as under :
(i) Only persons of German or related blood would henceforth be German citizens enjoying the protection of the German Empire.
(ii) Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden.
(iii) Extramarital relations between Jews and Germans became a crime. ,
(iv) Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag.
Other legal measures against Jews included :
(i) Boycott of Jewish business
(ii) Expulsion from government services
(iii) Forced selling and confiscation of their properties
Activity (Page No. 67)
Look at Figs. 23, 24 and 27. Imagine yourself to be a Jew or a Pole in Nazi Germany. It is September 1941, and the law forcing Jews to wear the Star of David has just been declared. Write an account of one day in your life.
I am wandering in the streets of Berlin. Hunger and thirst have exhausted me to my soul. As I am roaming on the streets, looking up to the German women standing in the balconies of their houses, my eyes are wide open, searching for one kind lady who would throw some food to me. But alas! my search remains unaccomplished. Soon I hear a sound of a mob running after a few boys. They just pass by me and ask me to join them. All of them are wearing the Star of David. As soon as I realise that they, like me, are Jews, I also start running with them. But in the end we are caught and put into a concentration camp. Our clothes are taken away and we are beaten in measurably. At the midnight hour all of us are gassed to death.
Activity (Page No. 69)
How would you have reacted to Hitler’s ideas if you were:
(i) A Jewish woman
(ii) A non-Jewish German woman
(i) A Jewish woman – Had I been a Jewish woman, I would have publically condemned Hitler’s ideas. I would have pleaded for a safe way to shelter homes and tried to earn my livelihood.
(ii) A non-Jewish German woman – If I were a non-Jewish German woman, I would have lived happily and adopted the idea of giving birth to as many children as possible.
What do you think this poster is trying to depict ?
The poster is making fun of a man who is trying to save and control himself from falling off the sacks of money. According to me, this poster humiliates the Jews, who are shown in this poster.
Activity (Page No. 74)
Write a one page history of Germany
(i) as a school child in Nazi Germany
(ii) as a Jewish survivor of a concentration camp
(iii) as a political opponent of the Nazi Regime
(i) History of Germany (as a school child in Nazi Germany):
The conditions in Nazi Germany, for school-children in-particular and for common people in general, were highly vulnerable. The school-children were conditioned ideologically right from three years of age. They had to wave a little flag when they can’t even think. Then comes school, the Hitler youth, military service. But when all this was over, the Labour Front took hold of the German youth and kept holding until they go to the grave.
The school children were segregated and some of our best friends, who were unluckily Jews, were made to sit at a distance from us. We had to study specialised textbooks which drove our little minds towards Nazism. The sports, a secular activity, but this activity was also not left untouched. There wag forced motivation, given to us, to choose ‘Boxing’ as our sport. This was because Boxing could make us iron-hearted, strong and masculine. But as a school child in Nazi regime, I sometimes thought if all this was really necessary. I thought the children should be free to decide their future and should not be used for political purposes.
(ii) History of Germany (as a Jewish survivor of a concentration camp):
Thank God, I am blessed with life. I have left behind the concentration camp. But, the atrocities that I suffered there still hound me. They make my life uneasy. Even in my dreams I am uncomfortable and die hundred times. I would do a great injustice to my coresidents of concentration camps (who died there) if I don’t reveal the reality of atrocities and sufferings that we underwent. The Jews were hated outside the concentration camps. They were beaten, captured, imprisoned when they were outside the concentration camps. But inside the concentration camps, they were sent to gas chambers or so called ‘disinfection areas’, just to kiss an unavoidable death. The stereotypical images publicised by Nazi press still hunt me. They trouble me in my dreams. Because I have witnessed, therefore I can say, Jews died many deaths even before they reached the gas chamber.
(ii) History of Germany (as a political opponet of the Nazi regime) :
Nazi regime is based on the hollow and weak legs of propaganda. Through the policy of occupying new land and political wars, nothing can be achieved. This will never result in long-lasting peace and prosperity of Germans. I may agree with the idea of realisation of German nationhood, which Nazis want to achieve, only in its objective. Because I totally disagree and condemn the ways ? undertaken to attain this noble cause.
The attainment of German nationhood does not need heavy investments in army and military equipment, or racial discrimination, or atrocities towards mothers and women, or concentration camps. But, it can be attained through democratic and non-violent methods. I We will have to give sufficient time to the republic to stand on its feet and deliver us the fruits of social, economic and political development of Germany.
Imagine that you are Helmuth. You have many Jewish 1 friends in school and do not believe that Jews are bad. Write i a paragraph, on what you would say to your father.
As Helmuth I would say :
Dear Father, what sin have innocent Jews done for which they are murdered indiscriminately. And if you have been one of the ‘ murderers and supporters of Nazi regime, I am ashamed of you. Why you did that ? Why were they illegally executed ? And Father, what you think of their spirits ? They are still hunting their killers. They will not rest until they have revenged themselves. O dear Father, I advise you to confess this huge crime against humanity. This may deliver you from your sins and you may be forgiven by those spirits.
UP Board Class 9 History Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
Textbook Questions and Answers
Exercises Of Ncert (Page No 74)
Describe the problems faced by the Weimar Republic.
Describe any three problems faced by the Weimar Republic soon after its birth. (2015-MK2DKKF, DXRGVY6)
Explain any three problems faced by the Weimar Republic in Germany. (2016-F0IYCD32; 2015-Z2QMNYL)
Following were the major problems faced by Weimar Republic:
(1) It had to sign the degrading Treaty of Versailles.
(2) There developed a party strife in the coalition government.
(3) The financial problem increased and unemployment touched a new height.
(4) It became very unpopular among the Germans, because it lost the pride of the nation in the hands of Allied powers.
(5) It had to face opposition of Allied powers and worldwide economic crisis of 1929-33.
Discuss why Nazism became popular in Germany by 1930.
Explain the circumstances under which Nazism became popular in Germany. (2016-3YJEUUZ, 5TBLYZB; 2014-3VZQZ4N; 2013-DTEARK, 8SJQQWO)
What was Nazism ? How did it become popular in Germany ? Explain. (2016-2ZJXX59, TDNOOZU; 2015-OPNCB64)
(1) A political system introduced by Hitler in Germany akin to dictatorship and fascism came into being. It propagated extreme hatred against Jews.
(2) The reasons for the rise or popularity of Nazism in Germany are explained below:
(i) The most important cause for the rise of or popularity of Nazism in Germany was the Peace Treaty at Versailles with the
Allies. This treaty was very harsh and humiliating for the proud Germans. They could never forget it.
(ii) As a result of this unjust peace treaty, Germany lost its all overseas colonies, a tenth of its population and 13% of its territories in Europe. It also lost a larger part of its resources like iron ore and coal.
(iii) The Allies demilitarised Germany to weaken its powers.
The Allied armies also occupied the resource-rich Rhineland in the 1920s.
(iv) The allied countries held Germany responsible for the war and damages, they had suffered during the First World War. It was forced to pay compensation of £6 billion to the Allies.
(v) Then came the economic crisis of 1923. Its economy collapsed due to a drastic fall in the value of mark and hyperinflation.
(vi) The above mentioned factors and the dominating personality of Hitler led to the popularity and rise of Nazism in Germany.
What were the peculiar features of Nazi thinking ?
Explain any four features of Nazism. (2011-480042, 43; 2010-980707-C2)
Highlight any five peculiar features of Nazi thinking. (2016-NS5WIB3, UBYBPPI; 2014-E5IDHGP)
(1) According to the Nazi ideology, there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. It strongly favoured the theory of superiority. The Nordic German Aryans were at the top. The Jews stood at the lowest rung.
(2) Nazism believed in the principle of ‘survival of the fittest’. The stronger race would survive and the weak ones would perish.
(3) It was organised barbarism. It aimed at physically eleminating the ‘undesirable’ elements or an inhabitants in the German society.
(4) It believed in establishing an autocratic totalitarian State with complete control over economy, media, army and judiciary.
(5) The Nazi ideology was related to the geo-political concept of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space. Germany needed new territories for settlement.
(6) Nazism believed in organising violence, atrocities and war. It did not believe in international peace, cooperation and understanding.
Explain why the Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for Jews.
Explain why Nazi propaganda was effective in creating hatred for Jews. (2016-WI6GQSN; 2011-480015; 2010-980721-C1)
“Propaganda popularised Nazi ideology and established Hitler’s dictatorship”. Explain the statement with five suitable agruments. (2016-KB0CUQA; 2014-LDZFLDP)
Explain how was the media used to propagate Nazism. (2016-S16SS10, 8JSY40N; 2015-OIPD1PE)
Why was Nazi propaganda effective in creating a hatred for Jews? Explain any five reasons. (2016-3TBIKNR; 2015-OE5ZZ4F; 2014-UOR6J3N; 2013-1EPFTK2; 2012-55, 61)
(1) The Nazi regime carefully made use of media to popularise and win support for its worldview that comprised its hatred for the Jews. Hitler had his Propaganda Minister, Goebbles for this purpose.
(2) The Nazis hated the Jews the most. Hitler’s hatred for Jews was based on pseudoscientific theories of race. The Nazis wanted only a society of pure Nordic Aryans or Germans. Only they had the right to live.
(3) The Nazi propaganda, to some extent, tried successfully to convince certain sections of the German society that the Jews were an ‘undesirable’ community that needed to be physically eliminated.
(4) The Nazi propaganda also tried to make use (in its favour) of the traditional Christian hostility towards the Jews. They had been stereotyped as killers of Christ.
(5) Jews were abused as usurers or moneylenders charging excessive money. Nazi posters attacked Jews with the caption : ‘Money is the God of Jews. In order to earn money, he commits the greatest crimes.’
(6) The Nazi propaganda worked with minds and emotions of the people and turned their hatred and anger at those marked as ‘undesirable’, namely the Jews.
(7) Propaganda films were also made to create hatred for the Jews. They were portrayed as vermin, rats and pests. Hitler believed that the final solution to ‘the Jewish problem’ was not ‘conversion’ but their total ‘elimination’.
Explain what role women had in Nazi society. Return to Chapter 1 on the French Revolution. Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting the role of women in the two periods.
Women played a secondary role in the Nazi society. They were just considered the bearers of Aryan race. Any woman not adhering to this code of conduct was punished, humiliated and jailed. On the contrary, those women who stick to these rules were honoured. The non-German women had to suffer the loss of their dignity and children. On the contrary, French Revolution brought some activity in women’s lives.
They were considered equal participants in the Revolution. They were involved in progressive activities such as membership in political clubs, newspapers, paintings and wage earning, etc. This was summed up by the establishment of “The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women”. They demanded equal political rights for women, which they earned after a long struggle of about 300 years. It was in 1946 that French women won the right to vote.
In what ways did the Nazi state seek to establish total control over its people ?
(1) Hitler began the process by destroying the structure of democratic rule in Germany. A mysterious fire broke out in the German Parliament. The First Decree of February 1933 suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press, assembly, etc.
(2) The Communists were his arch enemies. They were packed off to concentration camps. They were severely repressed.
(3) The famous Enabling Act, passed in March 1933, established dictatorship in Germany. It enabled Hitler to sideline Parliament and rule by decree.
(4) All political parties and trade unions were banned except the Nazi Party and its affiliates. The State had complete control over economy, media, army and judiciary.
(5) Apart from the already existing regular police, special security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted. These forces included the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS, the criminal police and the Security Service.
(6) People could be detained in Gestapo torture chambers, sent to concentration camps.
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Who was the propaganda minister of Hitler ?
(a) Hjalmar Schacht
(d) Helmuth (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980707-C1, C2, 721-A1)
In May 1945, Germany surrendered to the : (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980711-A1)
3/5 Marks Questions
State the reasons of setting up an International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg in 1945. (2014-57314YT; 2013-239FYP)
Briefly describe the role of the International Military Tribunal set up after the Second World War.(2015-B46LCBM, AFTMRWGF; 2014-ZU4X4AC)
Why was an International Military Tribunal set up at Nuremberg ? State any two results of it.(2016-S6LDZXN, ZNIVLFO; 2015-ZK04EEC)
(1) In May 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies. Hitler and his propaganda minister Goebbels and his entire family committed suicide collectively in his Berlin bunker in April.
(2) At the end of the war, an International Military Tribunal was set up at Nuremberg.
(3) It was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for crimes against peace, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
(4) The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many others were imprisoned for life.
(5) The punishment of the Nazis was far short of the brutality and extent of their crimes..
1. Birth Of The Weimar Republic
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
The Weimar Republic crushed the uprising with the help of a war veteran’s organisation called : (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980707-B1)
(a) Security Police
(c) Red corps
(d) Free corps
(d) Free corps
Which article of the Weimar Constitution gave the President, the powers to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree in Germany ?
(d) None of these (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980710-A1, 711-A2)
3/5 Marks Questions
Explain any three terms of the Treaty of Versailles. (2016-E07SHHK; 2013-KVSLUK)
Why was the ‘Treaty of Versailles’ treated as harsh and humiliating to people of Germany ? Explain any three reasons. (2016-Q1CDV8U; 2015-IGVEV09; 2014-AAJ8YEX; 2013- MRFHTOP)
“The Treaty of Versailles was humiliating on the Germans”. Give three examples in support of the statement. (2016-ZZDRO95, A0YFCN8; 2015-XLXA2VD; 2014-57314YT)
The Peace Treaty of Versailles with the Allies, made at the end of the First World War, was harsh and humiliating for Germany.
Effects of the Treaty :
(1) Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population and 13% of its territories in Europe.
(2) It also lost 75% of its iron ore and 26% of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
(3) What was once a mighty empire was demilitarised to weaken its power. Restrictions were placed on its army and navy with ban on the airforce. The resource-rich Rhineland was also occupied by the Allied armies during the 1920s.
(4) The war guilt clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allies had suffered. It was forced to pay compensation amounting to about £ 6 billion. All these gave Hitler chance to rise to power.
(5) Many Germans held the Weimar Republic responsible for their hardships and the disgrace at Versailles. The harsh terms of the Peace Treaty paved the way for the rise of Nazi Germany and sowed seeds of the World War II.
Describe any five problems that destroyed the Weimar Republic. (2016-IO3PN2W, MVTCFAN; 2015-4Y00PCY)
Describe any three factors which made the Weimer Republic politically fragile. (2016-WE9462K; 2015-FKUC3Z6)
Describe any three inherent defects in the Weimar Constitution that made it vulnerable to dictatorships. (2016-1UHRJCE, SRE45SQ; 2015-LYUDWCO)
Which provisions in the Weimar Constitution led to the downfall of democracy in Germany ? (2014-J9075RW; 2013-V52DUJQ)
The Weimar Republic of Germany was politically fragile or unstable. The Weimar Constitution had some inherent defects which made it vulnerable to dictatorship.
(1) One of its defects was the proportional representation. This made it impossible for any political party to achieve a majority. There could be only a rule by coalitions.
(2) Its Article 48 provided another defect. It gave ample powers to the President to impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree.
(3) It was mainly due to the Article 48 that the Weimar Republic, within its short life, saw 20 different cabinets changing —coming and going. They lasted on an average 239 days.
(4) The crisis in the Republic could not be managed even with a liberal use of Article 48.
(5) People lost confidence in the democratic parliamentary system as it seemed to offer no solutions to the problems the country was facing.
2. Hitler’S Rise To Power
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Who among the following was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980701-A1, 709-A1)
(c) Hjalmar Schacht
(d) Adam Smith
(c) Hjalmar Schacht
When did Germany withdraw herself from the ‘League of Nations’ ?
(d) 1933 (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980707-C1, C2, 721-B1)
Who amongst these offered Chancellorship to Hitler? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980709-A1)
3/5 Marks Questions
Explain the impact of Hitler’s attack on Soviet Union in June 1941. (2016-02SXVDR, G7VM6E5, KZPTGXS; 2015-O7QW5E0)
Describe the failure of Hitler’s dream of conquering Eastern Europe in 1941. (2016-ZEDLIDI, GAAQKFR; 2015-UM923XP)
(1) In the Second World War, Hitler wanted to achieve his long term aim of conquering Eastern Europe.
(2) To fulfil his dream, he attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941.
(3) This was the historic blunder. Hitler exposed the German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet army.
(4) The Soviet Red Army inflicted a crushing and humiliating defeat on Germany at Stalingrad.
(5) The Soviet Red Army hounded the retreating German soldiers until they reached the heart of Berlin establishing Soviet hegemony over the entire Eastern Europe for half a century thereafter.
The USA initially resisted involvement in the Second World War but was unable to stay out of the war for long. Why ? State three reasons.
(2016-LTGCOB9, NYOZW07; 2013-IK2F216)
State three reasons responsible for the USA to join the Second World War. (2016-3HGMAQU; 2015-NIHGF4C; 2014- 8BUTQBK; 2013-TB2BHPF)
(1) The USA maintained a policy of isolation in the inter-war period. In the early of the Second World War, President Roosevelt kept America aloof from the war despite overtures made by Winston Churchill.
(2) Under the lend-lease agreement signed between Britain and USA in 1941, a large number of American war planes, ships and other defence equipments were given to the British with understanding that they would pay for thenr after the war.
(3) Relation between USA and Japan began to deteriorate when Japan attacked China. When France fell into German hands, the Japanese used their diplomatic leverage to get the Vichy government to handover French Indo-China to it. This alarmed America who imposed a naval blockade in 1941 which prevented oil supplies from Japan.
(4) On 7th December 1941, without a formal declaration of war, 335 Japanese planes bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbour. The US base was reduced to ruin. The USA lost 350 planes; 3700 men, 5 battleships.
(5) So, America could not stay out of the war and two days later America entered the Second World War which changed the tide of war in favour of the Allies.
Briefly describe any five features of the foreign policy of Hitler that made Germany an international power. (2013-TB2BHPF)
What were Hitler’s Foreign policies ? (2016-ZZDRO95)
Explain any five features of Hitler’s foreign policy. (2016-ZNIVLFO; 2015-9U2DSS9; 2014-AAJ8YEX)
Hitler’s foreign policy aimed at gaining power and prestige for Germany. State this features of his foreign policy. (2014-N1NUQ78; 2013-BRWD9ZE)
Explain any four points of Hitler’s foreign policy. What did Schacht advise to Hitler ? (2016-KQT9REI; 2014-62C52DP; 2013-239FY1P; 2012-57; 2011-480029; 2010-980707-C2)
(1) In foreign policy also Hitler took quick and successful steps. He pulled Germany out of the League of Nations in 1933.
(2) Then he reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936. It had been made a demilitarized zone after the German defeat in the First World War.
(3) He integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan. ‘One people, One empire, and One leader’.
(4) He then occupied the German-speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia and later the entire country. In all these actions, Hitler had the unspoken support of England. ‘
(5) These quick successes at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.
(6) Schacht had advised Hitler against investing hugely in rearmament as the state still ran on deficit financing
Describe three main economic reforms carried out by Hitler. (2016-DD9VM7F, ZEDLIDI, Y6X40C1; 2013-925XJ5S)
Who was assigned by Hitler the responsibility to improve the economy of Germany ? Mention any two measures taken by him. (2016-CJYDM0R, UST5T46, 47IH577; 2014-H22F4K9)
Whom did Hitler assign the responsibility of economic recovery ? What did he aim at to meet this task ? (2014-J9075RW)
Following economic reforms were carried out by Hitler :
(1) After establishing complete State control over economy, army, media and judiciary, Hitler now focused his attention on the economic construction oi the Germ any. “He assigned “ine rekponsinitfry
of economic recovery to the economist, Hjalmar Schacht.
(2) Schacht aimed at full production and full employment through State-funded work-creation programme.
(3) This project produced the famous German superhighways and the people’s car, the Volkswagen.
(4) Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory. Hitler, therefore, invaded Poland and went on to conquer large parts of Europe.
(5) Hitler sought to reverse the country’s crisis by waging war against other nations.
Highlight any five steps taken by Hitler to destroy democracy in Germany. (2016-T1FJYAV; 2015-VU1VEUJ; 2014-J7FZRBE)
How was democracy dismantled under the rule of Hitler ? Explain any five ways. (2016-OKQ5C37; 2014-K9XQMOF)
Highlight five events of 1933 that led to the destruction of democracy in Germany. (2016-L1UCE4L; 2015; 2014-MTECNH3)
(1) President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as the Chancellor (Prime Minister) of Germany in 1933. Having acquired power, Hitler now set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule in Germany.
(2) Hitler’s rule began with a mysterious fire in the Reichstag. The German Parliament building was heavily damaged in the fire.
(3) Then came the Fire Decree of 28 February, 1933 that indefinitely suspended the civic rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, etc. These rights had earlier been guaranteed by the Weimar Constitution.
(4) The Communists were his arch enemies. Most of them were hurriedly arrested and packed off to the newly established concentration camps.
(5) Though, the repression of the Communists was very severe, they were only one among the 52 types of victims persecuted (treated badly) by the Nazis across the country.
(6) On 3 March, 1933, the Nazi leadership passed the famous Enabling Act. This Act finally established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to rule by decree, without going to the Reichstag.
(7) Excluding the Nazi Party and its affiliates, all other political parties and trade unions were banned. Hitler now had complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
(8) Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and order society in ways that the Nazis wanted.
What were the promises made by Hitler to the people of Germany? (2011-480039; 2010-980709-C1)
State any three promises made by Adolf Hitler to the German society. (2016-02SXVDR, 6XYPJ4P, K4W7AM7, HC96N98)
How did Hitler become the popular leader in Germany ? Explain any three reasons. (2016-RJVYDLX, ZGIKKF2)
Explain three factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany ? (2016-53G75NF, 6XYPJ4P, F0IYCD32; 2014-DWPQKNE; 2011-480024, 23; 2010-980710-A1)
Explain five major causes of the rise of Nazism. (2015-B46LCBM, LYUDWCO, NMB91C9)
(1) It was during the Great Depression (1929-32) that Nazism became a mass movement and the Nazi propaganda stirred or created hopes of a better future for the disappointed Germans.
(2) Hitler was a powerful speaker. He had a magnetic personality. His passion and his wordsfmoved people. He promised to build a strong nation.
(3) He announced to undo the injustice and humiliation caused by the Treaty of Versailles and restore the dignity of the German people.
(4) He promised employment for those looking for work and a secured future for the youth.
(5) He also made a promise to weed out all foreign influences and resist foreign ‘conspiracies’ against Germany.
3. THE NAZI WORLDVIEW
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
The book ‘Mein Kampf’ is written by : (2010-CBSE-SA-I—980707-A1, A2, 721-A1)
(a) Adolf Hitler
(d) Charlotte Beradt
(a) Adolf Hitler
In the context of Germany, what was ‘usurers’ ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980707-A1, A2)
(d) Nordic Aryans
Who among the following propounded the theory of the ‘Survival of the Fittest’ ?
(a) Charles Darwin
(b) Herbert Spencer
(c) Adolf Hitler
(d) Isaac Newton (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980720-C1)
(b) Herbert Spencer
3/5 Marks Questions
Briefly explain five measures taken by the Nazis to create a racial community of Germans. (2016-A8X7X0P; 2014-BVGR4DN; 2013-DTEARK, Z9310QH)
Explain the position of Jews in Nazi Germany. (2016-RJVYDLX, SRE45SQ, UST5T46; 2015-OKACJI2; 2014-KWTINOO)
Briefly explain any five measures taken by the Nazis to make German a pure racial country. (2015-0IIYLMN, 0SEZZ4F)
Mention five steps adopted by the Nazis to establish a racial state. (2015-1GVEV09)
(1) Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream overeating an exclusive racial community or society
of pure and healthy Nordic Aryans (pure Germans). They were alone considered ‘desirables’.
(2) All other communities (other than the pure Germans), living in extended German empire, were considered ‘undesirables’. They needed to be physically eliminated. Under the ‘Euthanasia’ programme, even many Germans who were considered mentally and physically unfit, were condemned to death.
(3) Though many Gypsies and blacks living in Nazi Germany were persecuted, the Jew remained the worst sufferers in the country. The Nazi hatred of the Jews was rooted in the traditional Christian hostility towards them. They were blamed as killers of Christ.
(4) The Jews also carried the image of usures (Moneylenders). In Nazi Germany, they lived in separately marked areas, called ‘ghettos’. They often suffered through periodic organised violence and expulsion from the land.
(5) From 1933 to 1938, the Nazis terrorised, pauperised (made poor) and segregated the Jews and compelled them to leave Germany.
(6) Hitler believed ‘the Jewish problem’ could be solved only through total elimination. During the war (1939-1945), the Jews were concentrated in certain areas and eventually killed in gas chambers in Poland.
Who all were considered as “undesirables” by the Nazis and why? (2011-480023)
List the communities which were classified as ‘undesirables’ in Nazi Germany. (2016-FNJ96ZS; 2015-GOVDEM; 2014-WMOKINE; 2012-41)
Mention the communities termed as ‘desirables’ and undesirables’ by Nazis. (2016-TIPH75U; 2015-RJQXOOQ, DXRQVY6)
(1) (i) It was supposed that Jews wei;e non-nationalists and they were plundering the wealth of the country. The Jews were hated by all and were classified as undesirables.
(ii) Gypsies were considered racially inferiors.
(iii) Russians were considered sub-humans.
(iv) Poles were forced to slavery.
(v) Blacks were considered inferiors.
(2) Nazis wanted only a society of pure and healthy Nordic Aryans. So, they declared other races and groups as undesirables. In their views, only strongest race should survive and others vanish.
4. Youth In Nazi Germany
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which Nazi youth organization consisted of all German boys of 14 to 18 years of age ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980701-A1)
(a) Hitler Youth
(c) Labour Service
(d) Youth League
(a) Hitler Youth
In Germany students between 10-14 years of age had to join organisation named f
(b) Hitler youth
(d) Young Nazi Party (2010-CBSE—SA-I-980709-B1, 710-A1, 711-A2)
In Germany, at 14 years all boys had to join the Nazi Youth Organization called :
(c) Hitler Youth
(d) Reichstag (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980720-B1)
(c) Hitler Youth.
3/5 Marks Questions
State three lessons that the German children learnt under Nazi schooling. (2016-CJYDMOR, MN85L05; 2015- W4WSL5Z; 2014-49B1WCU; 2013-JAWYOA7)
What changes did take place in schools under Nazism ? Explain in five points. (2016-HQJASPS)
Highlight five main features of Nazi schooling to establish a strong Nazi society. (2016-B6LQB01, J73AW9K; 2015-RJQXOOQ, PH8ROLH; 2014-BKXU0YS)
Highlight five important features of the education imparted in Nazi schools. (2016-47IH577, 7RFD443; 2015-CCOZBIT; 2014-9SGHC6J; 2013-RHCVC7B)
What happened in schools under Nazism ? Explain in five points. (2015-ZZ95; 2014-QUJHXND; 2013-16DO11R; 2012-44)
(1) Hitler felt that a strong Nazi society would be established only by teaching children Nazi ideology. This required a controlled schooling.
(2) All schools were ‘cleansed’ and purified children were first segregated or separated. The Germans and Jews could not study or play together.
(3) Then ‘undesirable children’, comprising the Jews, the physically-handicapped and the Gypsies, were thrown out of schools. Later in the 1940s they were taken to the gas chambers.
(4) All ‘Good German’ children were subjected to a process of Nazi schooling and long ideological training.
(5) School textbooks were rewritten to justify the Nazi ideas of race. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive and worship Hitler but hate the Jews.
(6) Even sports were used to create a spirit of violence and aggression among children. Hitler believed that boxing could make children strong and masculine.
Explain three main features of the Nazi Cult of motherhood. ‘ (2016-3YJEUUZ, MVTCFAN; 2015-V8R1UQW; 2014-9SQ92Q2; 2013-ADHBLY)
How were women perceived in Nazi Germany ? (2016-53G75NF; 2013-XZV3IX6)
Explain Hitler’s ideology regarding women and his policy towards them. (2O15-00GI2TB, ZW99U9G; 2014-JLS716W; 2013-J5HSIXL, 5M402LN)
State any five features of Hitler’s policy towards women. (2015-OR158KJ, EI8ICDQ)
(1) Children in Nazi Germany were told that women were radically different from men. The democratic right of equality for men and women was wrong. It would destroy society.
(2) While the boys were taught to be aggressive and masculine, •the girls were told that they had to become good mothers. They were expected to rear pure-blooded Aryan children.
(3) The girls had to maintain the purity of the Aryan race and keep away from the Jews.
(4) The women had to look after home and teach their children Nazi values. They had to be the bearers of the Aryan culture and race.
(5) In Nazi Germany, though the mother was considered the most important citizen, all mothers were not treated equally.
(6) Women who had racially undesirable children were punished. On the other hand, those who produced racially desirable children, were awarded.
‘The Nazi regime used language and media with care, and often to great effect. Explain and justify. (2012-34)
State three ways in which the Nazi regime used media to win support. (2016-W16GQSN; 2015-HBO5MLD; 2O14-0EPU0U6; 2013-JGISA7G)
(1) The Nazi regime carefully used language and media to win support and popularise its worldview. The Nazis used deceptive terms to describe various practices they followed.
(2) The Nazis hated Jews the most. They spread their ideas or thoughts against the Jews, in particular, through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets.
(3) In posters, Jews and other groups, identified as the ‘enemies’ of Germans, were stereotyped, mocked, abused and described as evils.
(4) Propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews. For example, they made ‘The Eternal Jews’ as the most infamous film on the Jews.
(5) The Jews were often shown with flowing beards and wearing kaftans (long loose dress). They were referred to as vermin (wild beast), rats and pests and marked as ‘undesirable’.
5. Ordinary People And The Crimes Against Humanity
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
In context of Germany, what was ‘holocaust’ ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980701-C1, 707-B1)
(a) Nazi propaganda
(b) Nazi honour crosses
(c) Nazi killing
(d) A Nazi school
(c) Nazi killing
In context of Germany, who wrote ‘The Third Reich of Dreams’ ?
(a) Charlotte Beradt
(b) Pastor Niemoeller
(c) Adolf Hitler
(d) Hjalmar Schacht (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980701-C1)
(a) Charlotte Beradt
What was the name given to gas chambers by Nazis ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980709-B1)
(a) Killing machine
(b) Solution areas
(c) Revolutionary ground
(d) Disinfection areas
(d) Disinfection areas.
3/5 Marks Questions
“Nazism reflects ugly face of humanity”. State three arguments in support of the statement. (2016-ZNIVLFO, 086E77W; 2015-KQVF01X;
Describe briefly the crimes against humanity carried out by the Nazis. (2013-JGISA7G, PMSLUK)
Describe briefly five inhuman features of Nazi thinking. (2016-RJVYDLX)
(1) Millions of people died in the concentration camps as nearly the whole of Europe was turned into a vast graveyard and a slave camp.
(2) The concentration camps were opened in Germany at Dachau within weeks of Hitler’s coming to power. The inhabitants of these camps were initially those who opposed Hitler’s regime or were Jews, slave or Gypsies whom Nazis considered as inferiors.
(3) When the war began, the camps changed their character
and became death camps.
(4) The 75% Jewish population of Europe was exterminated as nearly 6 million Jews perished in Nazi concentration camps.
(5) In many places like Ukraine and the Baltic States, they were simply shot in thousands and buried in mass graves. In other concentration camps like Auschwiz, they were gassed to death.
How did the common people react to ‘Nazi’s crimes against humanity’ ? Elaborate your answer by giving four suitable examples. (2011-480026, 30, 38; 2010-980701-C1)
Describe the reaction of the masses against Nazi barbarities. (2016-E08X2RK, 0HJ6SR5; 2014-1F60P3P)
How did the common people react to Nazism in Germany. State any three reactions. (2015-OIVBM19, WHD523D; 2014-JD8XC78; 2012-46, 66)
People in Germany reacted to Nazi crimes against humanity in different ways :
(1) Supporters of the Nazi ideology :
(i) Many saw the world through Nazi eyes and spoke their mind in Nazi language. They supported the Nazi actions.
(ii) Like the Nazis, they also started hating and disliking the Jews. Their hatred and anger grew inside them whenever they saw someone looking like a Jew.
(iii) They marked the houses of the Jews and reported suspicious neighbours to the police.
(iv) These persons really believed in Nazi ideology. They held the view that Nazism would bring prosperity, happiness and general well-being to the Germans.
(2) Not every German was a Nazi :
(i) Not every German i was a supporter of the Nazi ideology. There were critics of Nazism as well.
(ii) Quite a large number of people actively resisted Nazism.; They bravely faced police repression and death as well.
(iii) But, the large majority of Germans remained passive and disinterested onlookers or witnesses. They feared too much to act, i differ or protest.
(iv) Such persons preferred to look away and ignore the happenings.
(v) There was observed a strange silence amongst the ordinary Germans even in the face of brutal crimes committed against the people.
Map Based Questions Identification
Numbers are shown on the given outline map of the world. Identify these numbers with the help of following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map.
1. A country related to Hitler.
2. A major country involved in the Second World War which fought against the Allied Powers.
3. A major country related to the Allied Powers.
4. A territory under German occupation.
5. A territory under Italian occupation.
6. A neighbouring country of Britain which was neutral in the World War H.
7. A country related to German occupation.
8. A neighbouring country qf Norway which was neutral in the World War H.
9. A major country which cooperated with the Axis powers.
10. A territory under German occupation.
11. A major country which fought on the side of the . Allied Powers.
12. A major country which fought against the Allied Powers in the Second World War.
13. A major country which fought on the side of the Allied Powers.
14. A major country which fought against the Axis Powers.
15. A country under German occupation.
Locating And Labelling
On the given outline map of the world, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols.
1. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)
2. Poland : Territary under German occupation
3. Spain : A neutral country in the Second World War
4. Bulgaria : Power cooperating with the Axis
5. Portugal : It was neutral country.
6. Belgium : It was under German occupation.
7. Germany : It was the member of Tripartite Pact.
8. Switzerland : It was a neutral country.
9. Japan : Where atom bombs were dropped in 1945.
10. France : It was the Allied Powers.