UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur
UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions
UP Board Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur InText Questions and Answers
Activity and In-text Questions
Let’s Discuss (Page No. 3)
The following table 1.1 shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectares. Plot this on the graph provided. What does the graph show ? Discuss in class.
Table 1.1. Cultivated area over the years
Source : Pocket Book of Agricultural Statistics, 2017.
The above graph shows that by 1990-91, the cultivated area had increased in India. But, since then it has not increased till 2014-15 and remained at about 155 million hectares.
Let’s Discuss (Page No. 5)
What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method ?
Multiple Cropping Method :
(i) Multiple cropping method refers to growing more than one crop on the same piece of land during a year.
(ii) It is the most common way of increasing production. All farmers in Palampur have been practising this since the electric-run-tubewells were installed in the village.
Modern Farming Method :
(i) Modern methods of farming make use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation methods for more farm output.
(ii) It was mainly associated with the Green Revolution in the late 1960s.
The following table shows the production of wheat and pulses in India after the Green Revolution in units of million tonnes. Plot this on a graph. Was the Green Revolution equally successful for both the crops ? Discuss.
Table 1.2. Production of pulses and wheat (Million tonnes)
Source : Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Feb. 2018
This graph clearly shows that the Green Revolution was not equally successful for both the crops. In 1965-66, the production of both pulses and wheat was 10 million tonnes. But after 52 years, in 2017-18, production of pulses increased only to 24 million tonnes while production of wheat increased to 97 million tonnes.
What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods ?
The working capital required by the farmer using modem farming methods is money in hand for HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and wages, etc.
Modern farming methods require the farmer to start with more cash than before. Why ?
(1) Since modem farming methods need inputs like chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tractors, threshers, which are manufactured in industry, so they require the farmer to start with more cash than before.
(2) Traditional methods required traditional seeds, which required less irrigation. While for modem farming method, HYV seeds and more irrigation are required.
(3) In the traditional method of farming, farmers used cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers. They did not have to buy them.
On the other hand, modem farming methods require more irrigation and also chemical fertilizers, pesticides and use of tractors, threshers to produce best results. These all need more money because they are industrial products. That is why, modern farming methods require more cash than before.
Suggested Activity (Page No. 5)
After reading the following reports from newspapers/ magazines, write a letter to the Agriculture Minister in your own words telling him how the use of chemical fertilizers can be harmful.
Honourable Agriculture Minister,
Government of India,
Date : 27th March, 20 ……..
Subject : Regarding harm caused due to the use of chemical fertilizers.
I want to draw your kind attention towards the harm caused due to the use of chemical fertilizers. After reading the various reports from newspapers/ magazines, it is obvious that the excess use of chemical fertilizers reduces the fertility of land. These fertilizers provide minerals which dissolve in water and are immediately available to plants. But these may not be retained in the soil for long. Hence, they escape from the soil and pollute ground water, rivers and lakes.
Chemical fertilizers also kill bacteria and other micro-organisms in the soil. Thus, some time after their use, the soil will be less fertile than ever before. For example, the farmers of Punjab are now forced to use more and more chemical fertilizers and other inputs to achieve the same production level. It means cost of cultivation is rising very fast here.
Hence, I request you to consider this matter seriously.
Let’s Discuss (Page No. 9)
Why are farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali poor ?
There are various factors responsible for the poor economic
condition of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali. These factors are :
(1) Seasonal employment : The farm labourers do not have continuous work. On an average, a farm labourer finds employment for about 200 days in a year and for the rest of the year he is idle. Dala says that only the large farmers hire them. And that too for a limited number of days. Modern farming methods have snatched employment from them.
(2) Low wages : The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs. 300 per day (March 2017), but Dala and Ramkali get only Rs. 160.
(3) Low social status : Most farm labourers belong to the depressed classes. They do not have the courage to evaluate themselves and demand for higher wages.
(4) Unorganised : Farm labourers are generally illiterate, ignorant and unorganised. So, they are not in a position to bargain with the landowners and secure good wages.
(5) Indebtedness : They are heavily indebted. So, they are forced to accept lower wages.
Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in North Bihar. Out of a total of850 households in the two villages, there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common in most villages across India. Why do people migrate ? Can you describe (based on your imagination) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place of destination?
(1) People migrate to seek employment opportunities and increase their incomes.
(2) According to my imagination, the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might work as agricultural labourers in rural areas or as labourers on daily wages in urban areas.
UP Board Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur
Textbook Questions and Answers
Exercises Of Ncert (Page No. 14-15)
Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of the details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur.
(a) LOCATION : 3 km from Raiganj, Near-Shahpur, Western U.P.
(b) TOTAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE : 200 + 26 = 226 hectares.
(c) LAND USE (in hectares) :
Modem farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree ?
(1) Yes, I agree with the fact that modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry.
(2) For example, tractors for ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing, chemical fertilizers for higher output, diesel
for fuel, pesticides for agricultural diseases, pumping sets for irrigation as well as other electrical equipments and machinery tools for dams, canals, etc.
(3) These all are manufactured in industry.
How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur ? (Annual Exam. 2007, 2009)
How has electricity helped the farmers in Palampur ? (2015-5SNLOOO; 2014-3VZQZ4N)
The spread of electricity helped the farmers of Palampur very much.
(1) Before the electricity came, the farmers of Palampur used Persian wheels to draw water from the wells and irrigate their ; fields. But after the spread of electricity, they started setting up their own tubewells. As a result, the entire cultivated area of 200 ’ hectares of Palampur came under irrigation facilities.
(2) With the spread of electricity, the irrigation facilities increased. As a result, the farmers were able to grow three different crops in ’ a year in Palampur.
(3) Now the farmers were not dependent on the vagaries of the monsoon.
(4) There were often mutual conflicts among farmers because of their due share of ponds or canal water. But now they got rid of such quarrels.
(5) Apart from irrigation, electricity became helpful to run ^ threshers for faster harvesting and for dams, etc.
Is it important to increase the area under irrigation ? Why ? (2014-MOSDUB)
Why is it important to develop irrigation facilities ? Explain. (2016-WL9155G; 2013-SHCEE5E; 2012-46)
(1) Rainfall in some areas is not adequate as well as it is uncertain. This is mainly in Deccan and central India, Punjab, Rajasthan, etc. In these areas, artificial irrigation ig quite necessary. Without it, cultivation is almost impossible here.
(2) There are certain areas where rainfall is adequate but is concentrated in a short period of the year. The rest of the year is
dry. So in these areas, irrigation facilities will be helpful in growing 4 more than one crop in a year.
(3) In addition, there are certain food and cash crops such as rice, wheat, sugarcane, which require adequate and regular supply of water.
(4) Moreover, HYV seeds need plenty of water.
(5) Only a small part of land in our country is under irrigation. Hence, it should be increased.
Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.
TABLE – 1
Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages ? (2016-RF85KRN; 2014-29147A1; 2011-480041)
State three reasons of the variation in the wages of farm labours all over India. (2016-A8X7XOP; 2015-QXS5LCO; 2014-Z8KDVD7; 2013-VMEMHSK2)
It is obvious from the case of Dala that the wages for farm labourers in Palampur are less than the minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs. 300 per day (March 2017), but Dala gets onlyRs. 160. This is because :
(1) The farm labourers come either from landless families or the families cultivating small plots of land. They are poor and helpless. They work on daily wages. They regularly have to look for work. Since there is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Palampur, so the labourers agree to work for less than “the minimum wages.
(2) Most agricultural workers are from low castes and the depressed classes; They have little courage to evaluate themselves.
(3) Farm labourers are generally illiterate and ignorant. They are not organised in unions. So, it is difficult for them to bargain with the landowners and secure good wages.
In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. ,
What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get work regularly? Are they in debt?
I talked to two farm labourers named Ramu and Radha in my region. The conversation is given below :
(1) I asked Ramu and Radha, “What wages do you get?” They replied, “We get Rs. 160 only.”
(2) Again I asked them, “Are you paid in cash or kind?” They replied, “We are sometimes paid in cash and sometimes in kind, e.g., crop.”
(3) “Do you get work regularly?”, I said. They answered, “No, last year we worked nearly 200 days in the whole year.”
(4) Finally, I asked, “Are you in debt?” Ramu told, “I took a loan of Rs. 5,000 from a local moneylender when no work was available in the fields. God knows how I shall l repay him.” Radha said, “I had taken a loan of Rs. 4,000 from the village moneylender last year. So, he refused to give me further loan.”
(5) Thus, I saw that :
(i) The farm labourers get Rs. 160 only.
(ii) They are sometimes paid in cash and sometimes in kind, e.g., crop.
(iii) They do not get work regularly. So, they are heavily indebted.
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land ? Use examples to explain.
State the importance of growing more than one crop on a piece of land. (2016-JDMCH3T, 2010-980721-C1)
Describe any three ways by which production can be increased from a fixed plot of land. (2016-6XYPJ4P, GL08H38, RJVYDLX; 2015-3IUDMPF)
There are two different ways of increasing’production on the same piece of land :
(1) Multiple cropping and (2) Modem farming methods.
(1) Multiple cropping :
To grow more than one crop on the same piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. For example, farmers can grow jowar and bajra in rainy season (kharif), potato between October and December, and wheat in the winter season (rabi).
(2) Modern farming methods :
(i) High yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds in place of traditional seeds are used. This results in producing much greater amounts of ‘ grain on a single plant.
(ii) The fields are irrigated by tubewells run by electricity, l
(iii) Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used,
(iv) Various machines such as tractors, threshers, etc. are used
Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.
One hectare equals the area of a square with one side measuring 100 metres. Suppose the farmer plans to cultivate wheat on his 1 hectare of land.
For this :
(1) He requires seeds, fertilizers, pesticides as well as cash in hand to buy water and repair his farm instruments.
(2) It can be estimated that at least ? 5,000 will be needed as working capital for which he will have to borrow money.
(3) Since he has a small piece of land, so he has to work in the fields of large farmers also as a farm labourer on tough conditions.
(4) He has to do his household works.
(5) When there is no agricultural work, he performs non-farm activities also.
How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming ? How is it different from the small farmers? (3015; 2011-480023)
(1) (i) The medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming by selling the surplus farm products.
(ii) A part of the earnings is saved and kept as the working capital for the next season. ‘
(iii) They increase their fixed capital by adding their savings year after year.
(2) (i) On the other hand, the small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital.
(ii) They generally borrow from large farmers, village moneylenders or the traders.
On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
Savita got a loan from Tejpal Singh, a large farmer, on tough conditions.
(1) (i) Tejpal Singh gave the loan to Savita at an interest of 24% for four months. It was a very high interest rate.
(ii) Savita had to promise to work on his field as a farm labourer during the busy harvest season at Rs. 100 per day only. This wage was quite low.
(2) (i) Undoubtedly, Savita’s condition would be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest.
(ii) Her income would be increased ais she would have to pay less amount as interest.
(iii) She could easily repay the loan at low rate of interest.
(iv) And, she would not have to work very hard as a farm labourer for Tejpal Singh.
Talk to some old residents in your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years. (Optional)
(1) I talked to many old residents at village chaupal in my region and tried to know about the changes in irrigation and the methods of production during the last 30 years. I said to Madhav, “Dada jee, please tell me about the irrigation system prevailing in 1980s.”
Madhav said, “At that time, generally Persian wheels were used by farmers to draw water from the ponds or wells and irrigate the fields. Moreover, agricultural labourers used mud pots for irrigatipn.”
1 asked Murari, “Kaka, what were the methods of production 30 years before?” Murari told me, “Then the fields were ploughed by bullocks. Manures were used in place of chemical fertilizers. Persian wheels or mud pots were used to draw water from ponds or wells. Crops were harvested by the labourers.”
(2) Thus, we saw that there became major changes in the systems of irrigation and production methods.
(i) Now, pumping-sets are generally used in place of Persian wheels and mud pots.
(ii) Tractors and threshers came in place of bullocks.
(iii) Traditional seeds are not used now. Instead, high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds are used almost in the entire region.
(iv) Use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. has been highly increased in place of cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers.
What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a short list.
(1) Dairy: It is a common activity in many families of our region. People breed buffaloes, cows, etc. Milk is sold in the nearby town. Here, there’are collection cum chilling centres.
(2) Small-scale manufacturing: At present, almost 40 families are engaged in small-scale manufacturing in our village. These activities are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. These include jaggery (gur), pottery and handicrafts business.
(3) Shopkeeping : Some people of our region are involved in shopkeeping. They buy various goods from wholesale markets in the cities and sell them in the village.
(4) Transportation: A number of people are involved in transport services. They include rickshawallahs, tongawallahs and bullock cart, car, jeep, tractor, truck and bus drivers.
(5) Skill development centres : Some people run skill development centres such as computer training centres, TV and mobile centres, etc.
What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages ?
Explain any five efforts which can be made to increase non-farming production activities in villages. (2015-TAMMUN; 2014-OTP08CN; 2012-55; 2011-480029, 31; 2010-980710-A1)
(1) Increased infrastructure is the most important priority for the future.
(2) Small-scale manufacturing especially in rural areas needs to
be protected by capital investment restrictions so that they are not taken away by corporates. ‘
(3) Forward linkages of the non-farming sector serve as inputs to other sectors. In backward linkages, the non-farming sector demands the outputs.
(4) Education and health of the people especially in rural areas need to be looked after.
(5) It is very important to create general awareness among the villagers regarding the scope and variety of new non-farm activities which could be started by them in their homes or outside. Proper training and loan at low rate of interest should be provided.
Topicwise Questions Overview
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which among the following is the major economic activity of people in Palampur ?
(d) Trade and Commerce (2012-CBSE-SA-I-50)
Which is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy ?
(d) Agriculture (2012-CBSE-SA-I-73; 2011-480042, 52)
3/5 Marks Questions
How can you say that Palampur is a well-developed village ? Give examples to prove this. (2015-A9AANZJ; 2014-AZ180KP)
How can you-say that Palampur is a well- developed village ? (2010-980711-A2)
We can definitely say that Palampur is a well-developed village. This has the following reasons :
(1) Palampur is well-connected with neighbouring villages and towns.
(2) Many kinds of transport are visible on the village road starting from bullock carts, tongas, bogeys to motor vehicles like motor¬cycles, jeeps, tractors and trucks.
(3) Most of the houses in the village have electric connections.
(4) Palampur has two primary schools and one high school.
(5) There is a primary health centre run by the government and one private dispensary where the sick people are treated.
(б) There is fairly well-developed system of irrigation. Electricity powers all the tubewells in the fields and is used in various types of small business.
Describe the role of infrastructure in the development of economy. (2016-KBOCUQA, LHJCE4L, J67ASEU)
(1) Infrastructure provides supporting services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production.
(2) These services include electricity, roads, railways, ports, dams, telecommunication facilities, hospitals, schools and colleges. Some of these facilities have a direct impact on the working of the system of production while others give indirect support by building the social sector of the economy.
(3) Infrastructure is the support system on which depends the efficient working of a modern industrial economy.
(4) Modern agriculture also largely depends on it for speedy and large-scale transport of seeds, pesticides, fertilizers and the produce by making use of modern roadways, railways and shipping facilities.
(5) Infrastructure contributes to economic development of a country both by increasing the productivity of the factors of production and improving the quality of life of its people.
Organisation Of Production
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which one of the following is an item of working capital ?
(d) Money (2012-CBSE-SA-I-36, 44, 46, 55, 57, 65, 73, 75)
Which one of the following is an item of fixed capital ? (2012-CBSE-SA-I-37, 77, 82)
(a) Raw materials
What capital is needed as first priority to set up a jaggery manufacturing unit ?
(a) Fixed capital
(b) Raw materials
(c) Working capital
(d) Human capital (2012-CBSE-SA-I-41)
(a) Fixed Capital
3/5 Marks Questions
Explain the term physical capital. Mention its different types with examples. (2015-PH8ROLH; 2014-6ZGOM8H)
Explain the meaning of ‘Physical Capital’. Explain its two types with the help of suitable examples. (2014-3VZQZ4N)
(1) Physical capital includes the variety of inputs required at every stage during production.
(2) The following are two types of physical capital:
(1) Fixed capital : This includes tools, machines and buildings that can be used in production over many years.
K For example, machines, buildings, etc.
(ii) Working capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. For example, bamboo used for paper and wheat for biscuits are raw materials. Production requires a variety of raw materials. Also, some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Remarkably, unlike fixed capital, the components of working capital are used up in production.
Explain the aim of production. Highlight four requirements of production with examples. (2015-2PNL3fcA; 2O14-0EPU0U6)
What is the aim of production ? State any four requirements needed for production of goods and services. (2016-EO7SHHK? L1UCE4L; 2015-A9AANZJ; 2012-40)
(1) The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want.
(2) There are four requirements for production of goods and services :
(i) Land : The first requirement is land and other natural resources e.g., water, forests, minerals.
(ii) Labour : This refers to the people who do the work. This includes skilled and unskilled labour. Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks. Other activities require workers who can do manual work.
(iii) Physical capital; This is classified into fixed capital and working capital.
(a) Fixed capital: This includes tools, machines and buildings that can be used in production over many years.
(b) Working capital : Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital.
(iv) Human capital: This is the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in them.
Which capital do you consider the best – land, labour or human ? Give three reasons. (2016-6XYPJ4P, Z6NSMDP, NYOZWG, TIPH75U; 2015-GOVDEM; 2014-T66YDYR)
Which capital would you consider the best – land, labour, physical resource and human capital ? Why ? (2014-NU0YR61)
(1) Human capital is considered to be the best.
(2) (i) It is the skilled human capital that will make land and physical capital useful.
(ii) Investment in human capital will yield higher income and productivity.
(iii) Society gains through educated and healthy human capital.
(iv) This is because, it is the main asset of the economy.
Farming In Palampur
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which of the following is not used in modem farming? (2012-CBSE-SA-I-25)
If more than one crop is grown on the same piece of land during a year, it is called : (2012-CBSE-SA-I-40)
(a) white revolution
(b) multiple cropping
(c) modem farming
(d) subsistence farming
(b) multiple cropping,
During which season do farmers of Palampur grow jowar and bajra ?
(c) Rainy season
(d) Spring season (2012-CBSE-SA-I-43)
(c) Rainy season
3/5 Marks Questions
What is meant by Green Revolution ? What are its features ? (2014-9SGHC6J)
What is meant by Green Revolution ? Mention some of its features. (2013-KVSLUK; 2010-980710-B2, 980, 711-A1)
(1) Green Revolution is the name given to the new agricultural technology-or techniques of farming adopted in the late 1960s in India. It has led to significant increase output in the agricultural production, particularly the foodgrains.
(2) (i) Its most significant feature is the use of high yielding varieties of seeds, called HYV seeds, in some selected areas of the country.
(ii) These high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds require the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides on a large scale.
(iii) Modern irrigation techniques are used. Continuous and assured irrigation facilities are a prime necessity.
(iv) Agriculture is selectively mechanised. Agricultural machinery comprising tractors, harvesters, threshers, etc. is used on an increasingly large scale. These devices save time and create efficiency in agricultural operations.
(iv) Some other incentives include fair prices of crops, better marketing facilities, easy bank loans, transport facilities, etc.
What do you understand by modem farming methods ? Explain. (2015-LYVE7PI)
What are modern farming methods ? Explain their drawbacks. (2010-980709-C1)
(1) The modem farming methods use new techniques of farming. It requires the optimum use of the following inputs ;
(i) Chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(ii) HYV seeds of different crops.
(iii) Continuous and assured irrigation facilities.
(2) (i) The modem farming methods require the farmer to start with more cash than before.
(ii) There has been loss of soil fertility due to the increased use of chemical fertilizers.
Explain the distribution of land among farmers in Palampur. (2016-3HGMAQU, 5PHRWYW; 2013-PMSLUK, 1EPFTK2)
Describe the land distribution of’the farmers of Palampur ? (2015-PH8ROLH)
(1) In Palampur, about l/3rd of 450 families are landless
(2) Of the remaining families who own land, 240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size,
(3) On the other hand, more than half the area of the village is covered by plots that are quite large in size.
(4) 60 families of medium and large farmers cultivate land of more than 2 hectares.
(5) A few of the large farmers have land extending over 10 hectares or more.
Distinguish between traditional methods of farming and modern methods of farming. (2016-5FGBJWR, GL08H38, FNJ96ZS. R6ES594)
Traditional methods of farming :
(1) This method of farming involves manual ploughing of the field row-by-row.
(2) This is time-consuming.
(3) This method uses traditional and labour-intensive technology. Farmers use manure of farm animals.
(4) This involves traditional method of hand watering which is time-consuming.
(5) However, they are more environment-friendly and sustainable. This involves man-power but less chemical and technological power. This results in organically grown commodities—safer for humans and mother nature.
Modern methods of farming :
(1) Ploughing is done using tractor.
(2) This is less time consuming with better results and productivity.
(3) Advance technology, better pest control, HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used.
(4) Watering crops are much easier with pumping sets and electric-run tubewells.
(5) It affects our environment adversely.
State any five reasons as to why farm labourers are considered poor. (2015-OSEZZ4F; 2014-1M9SISF; 2012-45)
State the condition of landless labours in India. (2016-G06Q02’4; 2015-9U2DSS9)
They are poor because :
(1) Farm labourers are generally landless.
(2) They have no permanent jobs. They have to look for work on daily basis.
(3) They are not even paid minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is ? 300 per day, but they get only ? 160.
(4) They have large family.
(5) They are illiterate, unhealthy and unskilled.
Chemical fertilizers have harmful effects. Give three arguments in favour of the statement. (2014-KWTINOO; 2013-JAWYOA7)
How can the use of chemical fertilizers be harmful ? Give your opinion. (2014-SS1-QP-5)
Why does chemical fertilizer reduce soil fertility ? (2016-Q1CDV8U, ZEDLIDI, S86VB0R; 2015-HEDORTS)
(1) Scientific reports suggest that in many areas, Green Revolution is associated with the loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.
(2) Overuse of chemical fertilizers has polluted the groundwater, rivers and lakes. Water has become unsafe for drinking.
(3) Chemical fertilizers also pollute agricultural produce. That is why, it is advocated in favour of organic farming in place of modern farming.
Farmers of which two states were the first to use modem farming methods in India ? Mention any four positive effects of it. (2016-1UHRJCE, HKBRE05, UBYBPPI; 2014-CZWMT21; 2013-239FY1P)
(1) The farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to use modern farming methods in India.
(2) (i) Modem farming methods increased the productivity of land.
(ii) It increased foodgrain production in the country.
(iii) It brought the Green Revolution in the 1960s which resulted in high increase in the production of cereal grains, particularly wheat and rice.
(iv) They increased the income of the farmers and hence, their standard of living.
Explain the harmful effects of Green Revolution in Indian farming. . (2016-1UHRJCE)
Write any three negative effects of Green Revolution on environment. (2010-980720-C1)
(1) Modern farming methods used under the Green Revolution have overused the natural resource base affecting *] environment adversely.
(2) In many states like Punjab and Haryana, loss of soil fertility has been reported due to the increased use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides.
(3) Continuous and increased use of ground water for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water level much below the ground. Many wells have gone dry.
(4) Overuse of chemical fertilisers has also polluted ground water, rivers and lakes.
(5) Environment resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years. Once destroyed, it is very difficult to restore them.
Non-Farm Activities In Palampur
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which is the best way to expand non-farm activities in a village ?
(а) To have better means of transport
(b) Loan to be made available at low interest rate
(c) To have markets where the goods produced can be sold
(d) All the above (2012-CBSE-SA-I-34)
(d) All the above
Which one of the following is non-farm activities common in Palampur ?
(d) Shop-keeping (2012-CBSE-SA-I-61)
At present, what is the percentage of the people who are engaged in the rural areas in non-farm activities in India ? (2010-CBSE-SA-I-980707-C1, C2)
3/5 Marks Questions
List the non-farm activities in village Palampur. Which one activity do you feel to be important ? Explain. (2016-02SXVDR, MK1W5MC; 2014-5V3N2CB)
Mention any four non-farm activities of village Palampur Which activity do you feel most useful for the villagers ? Give any two reasons. (2016-Z6NSMDP; 2015-3I8ICDQ; 2014-3VZQZ4N)
(1) The following are the non-farm activities in village, Palampur :
(i) Dairy : This is a common activity in many families of Palampur. People feed their cattle with grass, jowar and bajra. Milk is sold in nearby village. It is sent to collection centre for further transportation to cities.
(ii) Small-scale manufacturing : People use very simple production method. These activities are mostly done by family members. These are carried out mostly at home.
(iii) Shop-keeping: People buy products from wholesale market in the city and sell in villages. Items include wheat, rice, sugar, oil, biscuits, soaps, candles, etc. Some opened shops at bus stops to sell eatables.
(iv) Transport: There are various means of transport in village Palampur like rickshaw, tonga, jeep, tractors and trucks, etc. They carry people and goods. The number of people associated with this v, activity is continuously increasing.
(v) Self-employed : There are various coaching institutes like computer centre. There are also stitching lesson centres. Various centres train more and more people in non-farm activities.
(2) I feel small-scale manufacturing to be important due to the following reasons:
(i) It would fetch high returns.
(ii) Labour and raw materials would be easily available there.
Describe the three features of small-scale manufacturing as a non-farm activity in Palampur. (2015-YPXAVZO; 2014-1S5F2ZH; 2013-B2KL2A)
(1) Less than 50 people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur.
(2) Manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are done on a small-scale.
(3) Manufacturing activities are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. Labourers are hired rarely.
What are the various farming and non-farming activities in village Palampur ? (2011-480014, 15, 21, 30, 35, 37, 38, 39; 2010-980721-B1, 709-A1)
What is the main production activity in Palampur ? Explain any four non-farm activities done in this village. (2015-QJARA79; 2014-1S5F2ZH)
(1) Farming activities: They are covering 75% of population in Palampur. This is the main production activity in Palampur.
(i) These activities are related to agriculture or cultivation of crops.
(ii) Farming activities include ploughing the land, sowing seeds, irrigating fields, manuring and weeding, spraying insecticides, harvesting the crop, etc.
(2) Non-farming activities : Only 25% of the people working in Palampur are engaged in activities other than agriculture. These are as follows :
(i) Dairy-keeping : Milk is sold in Raiganj.
(ii) Small-scale manufacturing: It is mostly carried out at home or in the fields.
(iii) Shop-keeping : Some people in Palampur are involved in trade. Shop-keepers buy various goods and eatables in the cities and sell them through small general stores in the village.
(iv) Some people are also engaged in transport services. They include rickshawallahs, tongawallahs, jeep, tractor and truck drivers and those driving bullock cart and bogey.