UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World
UP Board Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions
UP Board Class 9 Civics Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World InText Questions and Answers
Activity and In-text Questions
Activity (Page No. 2)
Let us take Lyngdoh Madam sc riously and try to write down the exact definition of some of the simple words that we use all the time : pen, rain, and love. For example, is there a way of defining a pen that distinguishes it clearly from a pencil, a b rush, a chalk or crayon.
Pen is a device which includes ink and nib or ball and used for writing generally on papers while others do not contain the same tools for the same purpose.
What have you learnt from this attempt ?
Each and everything has some specific features on the basis of which we can define that thing.
What does it teach us about under-standing the meaning of democracy ?
With the help of this example we have learnt that there are various types of democracy. But all have a common basic feature that the ruler is elected by the people of the land.
In-text Question (Page No. 2)
1 have heard a different version. Democracy is off the people, far (from) the people and (where they) buy the people. Why don’t we accept that ?
(1) We don’t accept the above version of the democracy becausem democracy is of the people not off, for the people not far and by the people not buy.
(2) In the above version it is said that democracy is not of the people, but away from the people and finally, it buys the people.
Check Your Progress (Page No. 3)
1. Ribiang went back home and collected some more famous quotations on democracy. This time she did not mention the names of the people who said or wrote these. She wants you to read these and comment on how good or useful these thoughts are :
– Democracy gives every man the right to be his own oppressor.
– Democracy consists of choosing your dictators after they have told you what you think it is you want to hear.
– Man’s capacity for justice makes democracy possible,
but man’s inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary.
– Democracy is a device that ensures we shall be governed no better than we deserve.
– All the ills of democracy can be cured by more democracy.
(1) The first and second thoughts are about those forms of government in which the people have the right to
elect their ruler without having options. It means they have to elect the candidate only from the ruling party.
(2) In the third thought, if mem accepts justice, then democracy is possible. But when the man follows injustice, the democracy is necessary there to give justice.
(3) In fourth thought, there is a balance between the form of government and our need.
(4) In the last thought, there is scope for changing the features and activities of democracy with change of time and as per need of the people to make the democracy more delivering.
Read the Cartoon (Page No. 4)
Syria is a small west Asian country. The ruling Ba’ath Party and some of its small allies are the only parties allowed in that country. Do you think this cartoon could apply to China or Mexico ? What does the crown of leaves on democracy signify ?
(1) Yes, this cartoon could be applied to China and Mexico because there is only one party, which is ruling the state and has the right to contest elections.
(2) (i) The crown of leaves on democracy shown in the cartoon signifies that there is only one branch which consists of many leaves and no other branches are shown.
(ii) It means there is only one political party which consists of many members like leaves, to take part in democratic activities like elections, etc.
Read the Cartoon (Page No. 6)
The title of the cartoon shown on page 6 is “Building Democracy” and was first published in a Latin American publication.
What do moneybags signify here ?
(1) Money bags signify that making of, democracy is very costly.
(2) During election, the government spends a lot of money to conduct free and fair election.
(3) At the same time, political parties and the individual candidates invest money beyond the limit set by the Election Commission to win the election.
Could this cartoon be applied to India ?
Yes, this cartoon could be applied to India.
Read the Cartoon (Page No. 7)
The cartoon is about the Iraqi election held after Saddam Hussain’s regime was overthrown. He is shown behind the bars.
What is the cartoonist saying here ?
(1) In one picture’s quotation, the cartoonist tells us about the equality of the right to vote and equal value of each man’s vote.
(2) In another picture’s quotation, he says about the dictator that he (dictator) liked most when he was the only man to decide on any matter by his only vote.
(3) However, the voting right came to the people of Iraq in the end. It means the triumph of democracy over dictatorship on the basis of right to equality at last.
Compare the message of this cartoon with the first cartoon in this chapter.
The first cartoon shown in this chapter gave the message of elevating and founding the democracy. But in this cartoon, the message is about the complete democracy.
In-text Question (Page No. 7)
Why talk about Zimbabwe ? I read similar reports from many parts of our own country. Why don’t we discuss that ?
Yes, there are similar reports as that of Zimbabwe from many parts of our own country. We discuss some of them here. They are as follows :
(1) There are many states in India where a single political party has been ruling for 15 or 20 years. It can be seen in West Bengal.
(2) Even at national level, a single political party (Indian National Congress) which was involved in the freedom struggle, ruled the country since independence (1947) till 1977 without any break. It followed the same policies during emergency (1975-1977) as in Zimbabwe, the ZANU-PF did.
Read the Cartoon (Page No. 8)
Chinese government blocked free flow of information on the internet by placing restrictions on popular websites like ‘Google’ and “Yahoo’. The image of tanks and an unarmed student reminds the reader of another major event in recent Chinese history.
Find out about that event.
That event was :
Massacre in Tiananmen Square in 1989
(1) In this event, several hundred civilians were shot dead by the Chinese army during a bloody military operation.
(2) The operation was to crush a democratic uprising in Peking’s (Beijing) Tiananmen Square.
(3) Tanks moved into the Square from several directions \ randomly.
Check Your Progress (Page No. 9)
Read the five examples of working or denial of democracy. Match each of these with the relevant features of democracy discussed above.
Read the Cartoon (Page No. 10)
This cartoon is from Brazil, a country that has long experience of dictatorship. It is entitled “The Hidden Side of Dictatorship”.
Which hidden sides does this cartoon depict ?
The hidden sides depicted by the cartoon are that, there are always some people nearest to the dictator who harass the common people and put miseries on them. They may be the relatives or the officials of the dictator!
Is it necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side ?
No, it is not necessary for every dictatorship to have a hidden side. Because, if the dictator really wants to work for the betterment of the people, he does not need to have a hidden side.
If possible find this out about the dictators including Pinochet in Chile, Jaruzelski in Poland, Sani Abacha in Nigeria and Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines.
(l)(i) General Augusto Pinochet, an army general in Chile, led the coup on 11 September 1973.
(ii) The Defence Minister was arrested and President Salvador Allende was warned to resign but he refused.
(iii) Then the military surrounded and started bombing on his house. In this bombing the President died.
(iv) General Augusto Pinochet put even Bachelet’s wife and daughter in prison and tortured them when they oppose him and talked for democracy to be restored.
We can imagine from this, what would have happen with general people who favoured the democracy.
(2) (i) Abacha in Nigeria had committed many wrongs.
(ii) He hanged the famous poet and social activist, Ken Sar.
(iii) He didn’t allow democratic process like elections in the country.
UP Board Class 9 Civics Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary
World Textbook Questions and Answers
Exercises Of Ncert (Page No. I5-I7)
Here is some information about four countries. Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’ or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
Country Information Type of country :
Here is some information about four countries Based on this information, how would you classify each of these countries. Write ‘democratic’, ‘undemocratic’, or ‘not sure’ against each of these.
Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy ? Why ?
(а) People feel free and equal in a democracy.
(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others – is not a good argument in favour of democracy. This is because :
(1) Prosperity of a country and its citizens are related to the economic policy of the country.
(2) A non-democratic country may be prosperous if the state is rich in resources and its government has better economic policies. For example, China.
(3) A democratic country may not be prosperous if its resources and policies are not helpful to develop the economy of the country. For example – Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
Each of these statements contains a democratic and an undemocratic element. Write out the two separately for each statement.
Statement (a): A minister said that, some laws have to be passed by the Parliament in order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organization (WTO).
A minister said that some laws have to be passed by the Parliament. (Democratic) In order to conform to the regulations decided by the World Trade Organization. (Undemocratic)
Statement (b) :
The Election Commission ordered repolling in a constituency where large scale rigging was reported.
The Election Commission ordered re-polling in a constituency. (Democratic) Large scale rigging was reported. (Undemocratic)
Statement (c) :
Women’s representation in the Parliament has barely reached 10 per cent. This led women’s organizations to demand one-third seats for women.
Women’s representation in the Parliament has never reached 10 per cent. (Undemocratic) Women’s organization demands one-third seats for women. (Democratic)
Which of these is not a valid reason for arguing that there is a leaser possibility of famine in a democratic country ?
(a) Opposition parties can draw attention to hunger and starvation.
(b) Free press can report suffering from famine in different parts of the country.
(c) Government fears its defeat in the next elections.
(d) People are free to believe in and practise any religion.
(d) People are free to believe in and practice any religion.
There are 40 villages in a district where the government has made no provision for drinking water. These villagers met and considered many methods of forcing the government to respond to their need. Which of these is not a democratic method ?
(a) Filing a case in the courts claiming that water is part j of right to life.
(b) Boycotting the next elections to give a message to all parties.
(c) Organising public meetings against government’s policies.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.
(d) Paying money to government officials to get water.
Write a response to the following arguments against democracy:
(a) Army is the most disciplined and corruption-free , organization in the country. Therefore, army should rule s the country.
Response : Army should not rule the country inspite of being disciplined and corruption free because, the army doesn’t represent the will of the people of the country,
(b) Rule of the majority means the rule of ignorant people. What we need is the rule of the wise, even if they are ifr smal I ” numbers.
Response : We don’t need the rule of wise in democracy if they are in small numbers because in democracy those should rule who represent the majority. Rule of majority does not mean the rule of ignorant people. .
(c) If we want religious leaders to guide us in spiritual matters, why not invite them to guide us in politics as well. The country should be ruled by religious leaders.
Response : The country should not be ruled by religious leaders in a democracy because, religion is a matter of personal belief and faith in a supernatural power. Whereas, democracy is totally based on the need and problems of the man.
Are the following statements in keeping with democracy as a value ? Why ?
(а) Father to daughter : I don’t want to hear your opinion about your marriage. In our family children marry where the parents tell them to.
The above statement does not have democratic value, instead it has the element of dictatorship of father. This is because, in democracy everyone has the right to freedom of thought, opinion and to marry anyone he/she likes.
(b) Teacher to student : Don’t disturb my concentration by asking me questions in the classroom.
No, the above statement does not keep in with the democratic value because in a broader sense, the students have the right to ask any question to the teacher, related to the subject.
(c) Employee to the officer: Our working hours must be reduced according to the law.
Yes, the above statement keeps the democratic value because, in democracy working hours are decided by the law of country made by the people’s representatives in the Parliament.
Consider the following facts about a country and decide if you would call it a democracy. Give reasons to support your decision.
(a) All the citizens of the country have right to vote. Elections are held regularly.
The country is democratic because in democracy all are given the right to political power i.e., right to vote and elections are held regularly to take the approval of the citizens for further governance.
(b) The country took loan from international agencies. One of the conditions for giving loan was that the government would reduce its expenses on education and health.
The country is non-democratic because in democracy no one from outside the country can dictate the government to reduce its expenses in any area or activities which are necessary for the welfare of the citizen.
(c) People speak more than seven languages hut education is available only in one* language, the language spoken by 52 per cent people of that country.
This country may be democratic. But, in the case when one of the six other languages is spoken by more than 40% of the people, as in Sri Lanka, it will not be democratically right to make education available only in the language spoken by the majority of the people.
(d) Several organizations have given a call for peaceful demonstrations and nationwide strikes in the country to oppose these policies. Government has arrested these leaders.
The call for peaceful strike by the organization is democratic whereas, the arrest of leaders by the government is undemocratic, because in democracy every organization has the right of demonstration by peaceful means.
(e) The government owns the radio and television in the country. All the newspapers have to get permission from the government to publish any news about government’s policies and protests.
The country is undemocratic because in democracy, the mass media, either electronic or print, are independent of state control and free to give information about the conduct of the government to the people and the response of the people to the government.
In 2004, a report published in USA pointed to the increasing inequalities in that country, Inequalities in income reflected in the participation of people in democracy. It also shaped their abilities to influence the decisions taken by the government. The report highlighted that:
- If an average Black family earns $ 100 then the income of average White family is $ 162. A White family has twelve times more wealth than the average Black family.
- In a President’s election nearly nine out of 10 individuals in families with income over $ 75,000 have voted. These people are the top 20% of the population in terms of their income. On the other hand, only 5 people out of 10 from families with income less than $ 15000 have voted. They are the bottom 20% of the population in terms of their income.
- About 95% contribution to the political parties comes from the rich. This gives them opportunity to express their opinions and concerns, which is not available to most citizens.
- As poor sections participate less in politics, the government does not listen to their conceras-coming out of poverty, getting job, education, health care and housing for them. Politicians hear most regularly about the concerns of business-persons and the rich. Write an essay on ‘Democracy and Poverty’ using the information given in this report but using examples from India.
“Democracy and Poverty”
(1) Democracy is the rule of the majority for the welfare of all. But now – a – days it has become the rule of the minority for the welfare of the minority who is rich in wealth, resources and education.
(2) In India, the gap between the rich and the poor is wide and widening everyday.
(3) In our country, the candidates are elected in elections who get highest number of votes but in multi-party election, the winning candidate often gets minority votes.
(4) India resides in villages where people are poor and uneducated. A candidate fighting election never represents them because he resides in cities and the candidate who wins, does not share their problems. He never tries to solve it as it should be.
(5) In India majority of parties and political leaders get hidden funds from the rich and business community which are in minority. That is why, the winning candidates often follow the dictates of the rich.
1.1 What Is Democracy
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Democracy is a form of government that allows people to choose their riders. Here : (2010-CBSE-980711-A1)
(a) people have the freedom to express their views
(b) only leaders elected by the people rule the country
(c) people have freedom to organize and freedom to protest against the government
(d) all the above
(d) all the above
Examine the following statements and find the one which is related to a democratic country. (2010-CBSE-980715-A1)
(а) Public protests and demonstrations are declared illegal.
(b) The head of the state is made less accountable by changing the Constitution
(c) The media enjoys freedom of expression
(d) Unfair practices are used during elections
(c) The media enjoys freedom of expression
Examine the following statements and select the right answer. (2010-CBSE-980715-B1)
(i) democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens rights.
(ii) In a democracy the final decision making power should rest with those elected by people. (2010-CBSE-980715-B1)
(а) (i) is right and (ii) is wrong
(b) (i) is wrong and (ii) is right
(c) Both (i) and (ii) are right
(d) Both (i) and (ii) are wrong
(c) Both (i) and (ii) are right
3/5 Marks Question
Distinguish between democratic and non-democratic countries. (2013-KVSLUK)
Compare and contrast democratic and non-democratic types of governments. (2016-WE9462K, J73AW9K; 2014-EM4IETA)
Distinguish between democracies and non-democracies.(C2014-SS1-QP-5)
Why do we prefer democracy over any other form of government ? Give four reasons. (2010-980701-A1)
How is democracy better than other forms of Government ? (2010-980709-B1)
Democratic government :
(1) People have political rights. They take part in an election process on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise.
(2) There are free and fair elections. People participate in them without any restrictions.
(3) It is accountable and responsive to the needs of the people.
(4) People participate in the functioning of the government and decision-making process, directly or indirectly.
(5) It enhances the dignity of an individual and it is based on the principle of political equality.
(6) People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves.
(7) It allows us to correct our own mistakes. Even when people make mistakes, they are responsible for their conduct.
Non-democratic government :
(1) People do not enjoy political rights or, they have very limited rights. Universal Adult Franchise is a dream.
(2) Elections are not held in a free and fair manner. People face many restrictions.
(3) It is not accountable to the people and less responsive to their needs.
(4) People are not allowed to participate in decision-making process. They have no say in the running of the government.
(5) People enjoy no individual liberty, dignity and political equality. They are suppressed.
(6) People are never considered rulers or dignified citizens. They are treated as subjects.
(7) There is no chance of correction of its own mistakes. The rulers never feel responsible to the people for their conduct.
1.2 Features Of Democracy
1 Mark Questions (Objective Type)
Which one of the following is not a characteristic of democracy ?
(а) People choose their rulers.
(b) People have freedom to express their views.
(c) Trade unions are not allowed.
(d) Strikes are not banned. (2012-CRSE-SA-I-34, 49)
(c) Trade unions are not allowed
Which of the following is a feature of democracy ? (2012-CBSE-SA-I-47, 62)
(a) Rule of one man
(b) Power is exercised by army only.
(c) No freedom to express one’s opinion
(d) People can choose their rulers.
(d) People can choose their rulers
General Musharraf brought back army rule in Pakistan in :
(d)2000 (2011-CBSE-SA-I-480035, 37, 34, 45; 2010-980707-C1, C2)
3/5 Marks Questions
“To assess a democracy, it is important to look at the important features of democratic elections.” State three features. (2015-YPXAVZO)
Explain the relationship between fair and free election and democracy. (2016-8MQ95OW, WHWHHLS; 2015-W4WSL5Z)
(1) Every citizen should be able to choose i.e., everyone should have one vote and every vote should have equal value.
(2) There should be something to choose from. Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections and should offer some real choice to the voters.
(3) The choice to vote should be offered at regular intervals i.e.,
election must be held regularly after every few years. The candidates preferred by the people should get elected. ^
(4) Elections are conducted in a free and fair manner where people can choose as they wish.
China is a communist country where elections are held after every five years but still it cannot be called a democratic country. Explain the reason. (2015-2PNL3CA)
“The Communist Party ruling in China in 2002 was a non-democratic form of government.” Give three reasons for the same. (2018-GL08H38, NYOZW07; 2013-ERDFKXO)
“A Communist form of government is not truly democratic.” Justify by giving five reasons. (2014-OO53NSOA)
(1) Elections are regularly held in China after every five years for electing the members of country’s parliament (the National People’s Congress) but, they do not represent people’s verdict.
(2) The Chinese Parliament has the power to appoint the President of the country. Some of its nearly 3000 members are also elected by the army.
(3) Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party.
(4) Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or the smaller parties allied to it, were allowed to contest elections held in 2002-03.
(5) The government is always formed by the Communist Party.
Describe the role of Robert Mugabe in establishing a non-democratic form of government in Zimbabwe. (2015-3OOKB2I, FKUC3Z6, MQMUB3B)
Why is Zimbabwe not considered a democratic country ? (2013-ADHBLY; 2011-480014, 42; 2010-980707-A2)
‘ZANU-PF in Zimbabwe is a non-democratic party.’ Give five arguments to prove it. (2014-G4SYU1P)
‘Can Zimbabwe be called a’ democratic country’ ? Give any three reasons to support your answer. (2016-3YJEUUZ, 8RUI8L0, JDMCH3T; 2015-Q94FL4C)
Zimbabwe is not considered a democratic country. Reasons are given below :
(1) Zimbabwe has been ruled by ZANU-PF for last three decades. This is the political party that won the freedom struggle in 1980. Its leader, Robert Mugabe, has been ruling the country since independence. . ,
(2) Elections have been held regularly and always won by the. ruling party. They have not been free and fair.
(3) (i) President Mugabe appears to be popplar but he also uses unfair practices in elections.
(ii)His government has changed the Constitution several times to increase the powers of the President and make hint less accountable.
(4) (i) Opposition party workers are often harassed and their meetings are disrupted by the ruling party.
(ii) Public protests and demonstrations against the government are declared illegal.
(5) There is a law that limits the right to criticise the President. Television and radio Eire controlled by the government and give only the ruling party’s version, opinion and decision.
(6) The government harasses those journalists who go against it. It has even ignored some court judgements and has pressurised judges.
“The PRI in Mexico is responsible for non-democratic conditions that exist in the country.” Justify with suitable arguments. (2014-H22F4K9)
Which methods were employed by PRI to win elections in Mexico ? What were its results ? (2016-ZZDR095)
What was PRI ? Highlight four dirty tricks played by it to win elections in Mexico ? (2015-AMIHEM; 2014-SFOCEHO)
(1) PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) is a party that had been winning elections in Mexico continuously. Opposition parties did contest elections, but never managed to win.
(2) (i) All those who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings.
(ii) Teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI.
(iii) Media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticise them.
(iv) The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates.
(v) In the Mexican example, people seemed to really have a choice but in practice, they had no choice. There was no way the ruling party could be defeated, even if people were against it. These are not fair elections.
Examine the three common features of democratic countries. (2015-IGVEV09; 2014-MTECNH3; 2013-Z9310QH)
Define democracy and elaborate any two common features of it. (2016-SQPE2PF, JMCH3T; 2013-TB2BHPF, SHCEESE)
Explain any three features of democracy. (2014-N1NUQ78; 2013-GSDELB; 2012-72)
(1) Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
(2) (i) Democracy is a form of government in which rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions.
(ii) Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
(iii) The choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis.
(m) The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.
1.3 Why Democracy
3/5 Marks Questions
“There are some demerits of democracy that we routinely hear.” State three demerits. (2016-S16SS10; 2015-NMB91G9; 2014-RZX4SZN; 2013-864DJEJ)
(1) In a democracy, leaders keep changing. This leads to instability. New leaders may change or undo the decisions taken up by their predecessors.
(2) It is not easy to arrive at quick decisions. Many persons are consulted in decision-making process. Long discussions and debates are time-consuming. They lead to unnecessary delays.
(3) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. So, there is no scope for morality. But, it leads to corruption because, it is based on electoral competition.
Why should we value democracy ? Mention three points. (2015-0IVBM19, 0SEZZ4F; 2014-BVGR4DN; 2013-16DO11R)
Write any five arguments in favour of democracy. (2015-A9AANZJ; 2013-KVSLUK, ADHBLY; 2012-34, 37; 2011-480015, 22, 23; 2010-980707-A1)
“Democracy is considered the best form of government and is clearly better than any other alternative.” Mention , three relevant points to show what it offers, (2016-NYOZW07, T1FJYAV, NS5WIB3; 2015-300KB2I)
(1) Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people, or the government is chosen by the people.
(2) In a democracy, the final decision-making power must rest with those elected by the people.
(3) It is in a democracy that free and fair elections are held and the people have a choice to change or remove the existing rulers.
(4) Democracy is based on a fundamental principle of political equality, It recognizes that the poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated. In it, each adult citizen must have one vote and each one vote must have equal value.
(5) It is a more accountable form of government. It means, democracy requires that the rulers have to attend to the needs of the people.
(6) Democracy improves the quality of decision-making. This is because, democracy is based on consultation, arguments and discussion.
(7) It can also be said that democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. It also enhances the dignity of citizens.
Define democracy. State any merit and demerit of democracy. (2011-480027, 33, 34, 37, 40; 2010-980707-C2)
Define democracy and explain its four major features. (2016-ZZDR095; 2015-2HC07LC, 60Y40J; 2014-EM4IETA; 2012-35, 40, 45)
What is Democracy ? Write its two features. (2016-OKQ5C37, E07SHHK; 2015-TQ1U5PP)
(1) Democracy : (i) The word ‘democracy’ comes from a Greek word ‘Demokratia’. In Greek, ‘demos’ means people and ‘kratia’ means rule. So, democracy is a rule by people.
(ii) According to Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is a rule of the people, for the people and by the people”.
(i) Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people. They take all the major decisions.
(ii) Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. It is based on the principle of political equality.
(iii) Democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct our own mistakes. It also provides a better method to deal with differences, conflicts, social problems, etc.
(iv) It is more accountable and responsible form of government. Discussions and consultations improve the quality of decision¬making.
(з) Demerits : (i) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is almost no scope for morality.
(ii) Democracy leads to corruption because it is based on electoral competition.
(iii) Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.
(iv) So many people have to be consulted in a democracy. Therefore, it leads to delays.
(v) Elected leaders are not often capable, well-educated and honest persons. This means, they may take bad decisions.
“Democracy improves the quality of decision-making”. Explain. (2013-GSDELB; 2010-980721-C1)
Democracy improves the quality of decision-making. Justify the statement with three arguments. (2016-2ZJXX59, 20YP5OW, TRFIYOl; 2015-3I8ICDQ, AMIHEM; 2014-49B1WCU)
(1) One important characteristic of democracy is that it is I based on discussions and consultations. Things or problems are thoroughly discussed before arriving at a possible or suitable decision.
(2) When so many people put their heads together or participate in a discussion, they give their own opinions, versions or ^ interpretations regarding different points raised during the i discussion. The participants are, thus, able to point out any possible 1 mistakes creeping into a decision.
(3) A large number of people have to be consulted in a democratic discussion. Long consultations may cause delay. But one big ‘ advantage is also there. Thorough discussions reduce chances of rash or irresponsible decisions.
(4) Even after a thorough discussion, if no consensus is reached over a subject or problem, the majority view is then respected. All ’ decisions are taken by majority in a democracy.
(5) But consideration is given to the views qf the minority or opposition. The opposition plays an important role ih decision-making” in a democracy. At times, the ruling party or the government itself may accept some of the views of the opposition on merit.
Describe any five demerits of democracy. (2014-9SGHC6J; 2013-GSDELB)
Explain any three factors that make democracy a weak form of govenment. (2015-ZW99U9G, B46LCBM; 2014-GWYNDNA)
What are the various drawbacks of democracy ? (2012-34, 35, 40, 46, 47, 53, 55; 2011-480011; 2010-980707-C1)
Give any five arguments against democracy. (2015-W4WSL5Z, RVUA99C, OKACII2)
(1) One argument we hear against democracy is that leaders keep on changing in it. This leads to instability. New leaders may change or undo the decisions taken up by their predecessors.
(2) In a democracy, it is not easy to arrive at quick decisions. Many people are to be consulted in decision-making. Long discussions and debates are time-consuming. They lead to unnecessary delays.
(3) Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality and honest dealings. Self-interest and immediate gain become more important than social or national interest.
(4) Elected leaders do not often know the best interest of the people who have elected them.
(5) The electoral competition in a democracy often leads to corruption or corrupt practices.
(6) Democracy goes by majority rule or judgement, But majority consists of many ignorant, poor people in a developing nation. They may not know what is good for them or what steps are needed to be taken for social welfare.
1.4 Broader Meanings Of Democracy
3/5 Marks Questions
What does direct democracy imply ? Why can it not be practised in the present day world ? (2016-Q1CDV8U, WI6GQSN; 2014-J7FZRBE; 2013-BPBLY)
(1) Direct democracy implies to the democracy in which every citizen must be able to play equal role in decision-making.
(2) (i) Modem democracies involve such a large number of people that it is physically not possible for them to sit together and take a collective decision. Even the majority does not rule directly but, l through their elected representatives.
(ii) Moreover, the citizen does not have the time, the desire or the skills to take part in all the decisions.
Explain the meaning of representative democracy. How is it significant in contemporary world ? (2016-FNJ96ZS, R6ES594; 2015-OKACJI2; 2014-5V3N2CB)
What do you understand by representative democracy ? Why is it a more practised form in today’s world ?
(1) When the majority of people rule through their elected representatives, this is called representative democracy.
(2) (i) The most common form that democracy takes in our times is that of a representative democracy. In a democracy, all the people do not rule. Direct rule by people is not possible.
(ii) So, in a democracy, the majority is allowed to take decisions on behalf of all the people. Even the majority does not rule directly. It rules through its elected representatives.
(iii) A representative democracy becomes necessary. Modern democracies comprise a large number of people. It is physically impossible for them to sit together at a place and take a collective decisions.
(iv) Even if they could sit together, all the citizens do not have 1 the time, the desire or the skills to take part in all the decisions.