UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation
UP Board Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation Textbook Questions and Answers, Additional Important Questions
UP Board Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation InText Questions and Answers
Activity (Page 80)
Give two examples where modern development that is associated with progress has led to problems. You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues, nuclear weapons or diseases.
(i) Development in Agriculture : Use of weedicide, pesticide, urea and other chemical fertilisers has led to the problem of soil sterility, and other environmental concerns.
(ii) Development in Nuclear Weapons: Modern nuclear weapons are the most destructive because of the radioactive pollution that they spread. Due to this, many people die, and many get injured for their whole lives. For example, Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
Activity (Page 83)
The way in which historians focus on industrialisation rather than on small workshops is a good example of how what we believe today about the past is influenced by what historians choose to notice and what they ignore. Note down one event or aspect of your own life which adults such as your parents or teachers may think is unimportant, but which you believe to be important.
[Hints – Students can select topics like entertainment hours, importance of game and play, etc. They may write down any such event that had taken place in their lives when he was interested but parents/teachers denied to let them do so.]
Activity (Page 83)
Look at Figs. 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way the two images show industrialisation? Explain your view briefly.
(i) In Fig. 4, the Lancashire cotton mill, adds to the beauty of the city due to its lighting system during the evening.
(ii) In Fig. 5, the Manchester is shown to have a cluster of industries that emit lot of smoke. It symbolises environmental pollution.
(iii) Therefore, the difference between the two figures is that of the ways industries have been set up at the two places.
Activity (Page 85)
Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine. Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology.
Due to under written reasons, that I have-gathered on my own, I don’t want to invest in the new technology :
(i) It is costly, ineffective, not easy to repair and it breaks down frequently.
(ii) I would prefer to pay low wages to cheap labour rather than to buy a costly new machine.
(iii) Machines produce standard and uniform goods, while customers ask for variety, range, colour, specifically designed handmade goods.
Discuss (Page 87)
Look at Figs. 3, 7 and 11, then reread source B. Explain, why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.
(1) Most of the workers had got employment in the textile industries.
(2) The introduction of spinning Jenny, not only produced large quantity of goods but also saved time. So, industrialists started using this machine.
(3) This led to increase in unemployment.
Therefore, many workers were opposed to the use of Spinning Jenny.
UP Board Class 10 History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in Brief:
Explain the following :
(a)Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because it could spin many spindles with one wheel. This increased the productivity but also led to decrease in employment of women in the textile industries. Angry women, therefore, attacked the machine.
(b) The trade and commerce guild controlled market, raw materials, employees, production of goods in the towns. This created problems for merchants who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Therefore, they turned to peasants and artisans who lived in villages.
(c) By the end of eighteenth century, port of Bombay was developed by the European colonies. Thus, as the latter controlled sea trade of export, they didn’t want to use the old Surat port. Therefore, the sea trade from Surat declined by the end of eighteenth century.
(d) Weavers in India not only produced coarser cloth for the East India Company, but also for other European companies as well as local Indian merchants. The East India Company wanted to control the cloth production and trade monopoly. Therefore, it appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers and gave latter the advance loans to buy raw materials.
Write True or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Explain what is meant by proto-industralisation.
(1) By proto-industrialisation we mean the period in which Europe and England produced goods for the international market on a very large-scale, even before there were factories.
(2) The goods were produced in the household with the help of family members.
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth- century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe preferred hand labour over machines due to the following reasons:
(1) Machines were costly, ineffective, hard to repair and needed capital investments.
(2) Labour was cheaply available at low wages.
(3) The demands of variety of designs and colour and specific length could not be fulfilled by machine made cloths. It could be fulfilled only by handmade cloths. This needed labour.
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
(1) The East India Company started eliminating the existing traders and brokers in cloth trade. It established a more direct control over the weavers.
(2) The Company appointed paid servants called gomasthas. These people supervised weaver, collected supplies and exam¬ined the quality of cloth.
(3) The Company prevented weavers from dealing with competitors. For this, it paid advances to the weavers. The weavers were given loans to purchase raw materials for production of goods.
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
(1) Britain had successfully controlled and dominated the trade in cotton (raw material), cotton fabrics of coarser or fine varities.
(2) It had established markets all over its colonies for selling the Manchester made cotton textiles, at a cheaper rate.
(3) Britain had really found ways to make enormous profits from the trade in cotton.
(4) The East India Company indebted Indian weavers and supervised them with the help of gomasthas. This ensured regular suply of both handmade fine variety of cotton fabric as well as raw cotton.
(5) Within Britain, the industrial growth began with the development of cotton textile mills at various places.
Hence, Britain, had enjoyed a good position in world economic history for more than five centuries due to the control of cotton trade.
Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War ?
India witnessed increased industrial production during the First World War due to the following reasons :
(1) British industries began to produce for war. Hence, they stopped exporting goods or cloths for colonial market in India.
(2) It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill in empty Indian markets with their products. Therefore, industrial production increased.
(3) Also, the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply war needs : jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddle, etc.
(4) The increased demands of a variety of products led to the setting up of new factories and multiple shifts in the old ones.
(5) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
All this led to boom in the industrial production in India, during the First World War.
Select any one industry in your region and find out its history. How has the technology changed? Where do the workers come from? How are the products advertised and marketed? Try and talk to the employers and some workers to get their views about the industry’s history.
[Hints – (1) Students can choose any neighbouring industry in their region or locality. For example in Gurgaon, Maruti cars are manufactured.
(2) Students can explore the technological changes that took place in car manufacturing industry. For example, Henry Ford introduced “Assembly Line” in car manufacturing, that increased car production many times.
(3) In Gurgaon based Maruti car factory, for example, most of the workers come from Delhi and Gurgaon.
(4) The advertisements of various models of Maruti car are frequently telecasted on television. One can find them in newspapers, magazines, public places and hoardings etc. The cars are marketed by agencies, or showroom owners. You can also personally interview employers and workers of Maruti Udyog Limited.]
UP Board Class 10 History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation Additional Important Questions and Answers
Objective Type Questions
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which among the following were the most dynamic industries in Britain in the first phase of industrialisation ?
(a) Food processing and building
(b) Cotton and metals
(c) Pottery and glass work
(d) Tanning and furniture
(b) Cotton and metals
Which one of the following is not a reason for preferring hand labour over machines in Victorian England ?
(а) Seasonal industries were not willing to invest in machines.
(b) Human labour was cheaper than work by machines.
(c) The elite class wanted to generate employment for the poor.
(d) The elite class preferred hand-made things because they symbolised refinement.
(c) The elite class wanted to generate employment for the poor
Which of the following is NOT a pre-colonial port ?
Which of the following was not a European Managing Agency dominating industrial production in India ?
(a) Andrew Yule
(b) Bird Heiglers and Co.
(c) Jardine Skinner and Co.
(d) Elgin Mills
(d) Elgin Mills
How does advertisement help us to create new consumer ?
(a) It makes product appear desirable and necessary
(b) They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs
(c) It helps in expanding the markets for products
(d) All the above
(d) All the above
Fill in the blanks :
Production processes involving carding, twisting and rolling are associated with.
Spinning Jenny was divised by.
Surat pre-colonial port connected India to .
the Gulf countries and the Red Sea Ports
In India the first spinning and weaving mill was set up in 1874 at.
State whether the following statements are True or False:
By colonial rule the pattern of industrial change in India was conditioned.
The demand for labourers was seasonal in many industries in Victorian Britain.
G.D. Birla set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917.
After the First World War, Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian market.
Very Short Answer Type Questions (VSAQs)
Who manufactured the new model of the steam engine?
Why did the women working in the woolen textile industry begin attacking the Spinning Jenny?
It caused them unemployment.
Why did the British merchants engage farmers from the countryside to produce textile for the market?
The guilds in cities made it difficult for new merchants to establish themselves.
Where were most of the large scale industries located in 1911?
Bengal and Bombay
What was the effect of industrialisation on weavers ?
Artisans lost their means of survival that resulted in the lifting of destitution and misery.
State any one value of the Indian people that was exploited by the manufactures to sell their products in early 20th century India.
Faith in god and goddesses as well as loyalty to the kings.
Picture Based Question:
Who has devised the image given below?
(Taken from NCERT textbook, Page-87)
(a) Richard Arkright
(b) James Hargheaves
(c) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Richard M Hoe
(b) James Hargreaves
Assertion and Reason
In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion (A) : Indian industrial growth suddenly shot up during the First World War.
Reason (R) : As British mills were busy with war production, Manchester imports into India declined. Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is correct but R is wrong.
(d) A is wrong but R is correct
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Case!Source-Based Integrated Questions
Read the source below and answer the question that follows :
Source A: ‘From the depredation of a lawless Banditti of colliers and their wives, for the wives had lost their work to spinning engines … they advanced at first with much insolence, avowing their intention of cutting to pieces the machine, lately introduced in the woollen manufacture; which they suppose, if generally adopted, will lessen the demand for manual labour. The women became clamorous. The men were more open to conviction and after some expostulation were induced to desist from their purpose and return peacefully home.’
Source B : ‘It appears that twenty years ago, a brisk trade was carried on in the manufacture of cloth at Jahanabad and Bihar, which has in the former place entirely ceased, while in the latter the amount of manufacture is very limited, in consequence of the cheap and durable goods from Manchester with which the Native manufactures are unable to complete.’
Source C : ‘The Koshtis, like the weavers of the finer kinds of cloth in other parts of India, have fallen upon evil times. They are unable to complete with the showy goods, which Manchester sends in such profusion and they have of late years emigrated in great numbers, chiefly to Berar, where as day labourers they are able to obtain wages…’
(i) Why did women workers attack the Spinning Jenny ?
Women workers attack the Spinning Jenny because most of the women workers depended on hand spinning jobs for their livelihood. After the Spinning Jenny, many of them lost their jobs. So, they started attacking the new machine.
(ii) What is the main reason for the decline of India’s textile industry ?
Indian textile industry declined because of the cheap and durable goods from Manchester which were flooding the Indian markets.
Source C :
(iii) Who were Koshtis ?
Koshtis were a weaver community of Central India.
Question 23 .
Source A: Where did the workers come from? In most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants and artisans who found no work in the village went to the industrial centres in search of work. Over 50 per cent workers in the Bombay cotton industries in 1911 came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the villages within the district of Kanpur. Most often mill workers moved between the village and the city, returning to their village homes during harvests and festivals.
Source B : Dominated industrial production in India European Managing Agencies, which dominated industrial production in India, were interested in certain kinds of products. They established-tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government; and they invested in mining, indigo and jute. Most of these were products required primarily for export trade and not for sale in India.
Source C : Industries shifted from Yarn to cloth production From 1906, moreover, the export of Indian yam to China declined since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market. So industrialists in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production. Cotton piece-goods production in India doubled between 1900 and 1912.
Source A: Where did the workers come from?
(1) Where did the workers come in the Bombay cotto’n industries in 1911?
Over 50% workers in Bombay cotton industries in 1911, came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri.
Source B : Dominated industrial production in India
(ii) What were established by the European Managing Agencies ?
The European Managing Agencies established tea and coffee plantations, acquiring land at cheap rates from the colonial government and they invested in mining, indigo and jute.
Source C : Industries shifted from Yarn to cloth production
(iii) When was cotton piece-goods production doubled in India ?
Between 1900 and 1912.
Subjective Type Questions
Explain any three effects of industrialisation on agriculture in the 18th century.
(1) Due to industrialisation merchants from the towns began moving to countryside which affected agriculture in the 18th century.
(2) In the countryside peasants and artisans began working for merchants.
(3) By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots which supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them to use their family labour resources.
What is ‘proto-industrialisation’ ? Write the most dynamic industries in Britain in the first phase of industrialisation.
(1) Proto-industrialisation was the early phase of industrialisation in Europe and England when there was large scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories.
(2) The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly cotton and metals.
(3) Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation upto the 1840s.
Explain with examples that the demand for labourers was seasonal in many industries in Victorian Britain.
(1) In Victorian Britain, the demand for labourers was seasonal in many industries which resulted in prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again.
(2) Some returned to countryside after the winter when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places.
(3) Many looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
(4) For example, Gas works and breweries were specially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand. Once the winter season was over, the extra employed labour was workless.
(5) Book-binders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December. In all such industries production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour employing workers for the season.
Describe any three major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century.
Major problems faced by Indian cotton weavers in the nineteenth century were as follows : ‘
(1) Their export market collapsed due to increase in import duties on them in England.
(2) Their local market shrank as they were flooded with cheap Manchester imports. ,
(3) They could not get sufficient supply or raw cotton of good quality.
(4) By the end of the 19th century, factories in India began ‘ production and flooded the market with machine’s goods. This created the problem of survival for weaving industries. (Any three points)
Why did the network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants break down by the 1750s ? Mention any two effects of such a breakdown ?
(1) The network of export trade in textiles controlled by the Indian merchants broke down by the 1750s for the following reasons :
(i) European trading companies gained power. First, they acquired trading concessions from local rulers, then monopolised rights to trade.
(ii) This resulted in the decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly.
(iii) Exports from the old ports fell dramatically and local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
(2) Impacts :
(i) Weavers devoted entire time to weaving. They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.
(ii) There were reports of clashes between weavers and gomasthas. The new gomasthas were outsiders. They acted arrogantly, marched into villages with sepoys and peons, and . punished weavers for delays in supply. The weavers lost the space * to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers.
(iii) Weavers deserted villages and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relations.
Where was the first cotton mill set up in India ? Write the views of Dwarkanath Tagore towards development of India.
(1) The first cotton mill was set up in Bombay in 1854 and it went into production two years later.
(2) The views of Dwarkanath Tagore towards development of India.
(i) He believed that India would develop through westernisation and industrialisation.
(ii) He invested in shipping, ship-buiding, mining, banking, plantations and insurance.
Who was a jobber ? What were his main functions ?
(1) The jobber was a person with some authority and he used to help the industrialists to get workers. His role was to ensure job to workers and workers to industrialists. He used to be an old and trusted worker.
(2) Following were the functions of jobber :
(i) He got people from his village.
(ii) He ensured them jobs.
(iii) He helped the workers to settle in the cities.
(iv) He provided money to the workers in times of crisis.
Why did the Indian industrial growth suddenly shoot up in the years of the First World War ? Explain any three reasons.
The Indian industrial growth suddenly shot up during the First World War because :
(1) British mills were busy with war production, Manchester imports into India declined.
(2) Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
(3) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs; jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots.
(4) New factories were set up and old ones ran in multiple shifts.
(5) Many new workers were employed and industrial production boomed.
How did British persuade Indians to buy new products ? Explain with examples.
(1) The British manufacturers used images of Indian gods and goddesses on the labels. It symbolized the divine approval for the commodity. It also created familiarity with the Indian buyers.
(2) The Manchester made cloth carried a label with ‘Made in Manchester’ written in bold. This assured the buyers of the quality of the cloth.
(3) Manufacturers got calendars printed with the image of gods and goddesses and the advertisement to their product. The calendars were seen on the walls of hotels, tea shops, households, etc. Images of historical characters and heroes from past wefe also displayed on calendars.